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If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. This article is about the colour. Coronation of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castille 1223. Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
Blue has been an important colour in art and decoration since ancient times. The semi-precious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and later, in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most commonly associated with harmony, faithfulness, confidence, distance, infinity, the imagination, cold, and sometimes with sadness. In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, chosen by almost half of both men and women as their favourite colour. Blue is the colour of light between violet and green on the visible spectrum. Europe, and Indigofera tinctoria, or true indigo, in Asia and Africa. This was the first synthetic blue, first made in about 2500 BC.
Ultramarine, slightly violet-blue, in a painting by Giovanni Bellini. It was the most expensive pigment of Renaissance. Several languages, including Japanese, Thai, Korean, and Lakota Sioux, use the same word to describe blue and green. For example, in Vietnamese the colour of both tree leaves and the sky is xanh. Linguistic research indicates that languages do not begin by having a word for the colour blue.
Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength gradually look more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength gradually appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometres. Isaac Newton included blue as one of the seven colours in his first description the visible spectrum, He chose seven colours because that was the number of notes in the musical scale, which he believed was related to the optical spectrum. He included indigo, the hue between blue and violet, as one of the separate colours, though today it is usually considered a hue of blue.
Red and blue mixed together form violet, blue and yellow together form green. Mixing all three primary colours together produces a dark grey. The RYB model was used for colour printing by Jacob Christoph Le Blon as early as 1725. Later, printers discovered that more accurate colours could be created by using combinations of magenta, cyan, yellow and black ink, put onto separate inked plates and then overlaid one at a time onto paper. In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wavelength of their light.
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He showed that white light could be created by combining red, blue and green light, and that virtually all colours could be made by different combinations of these three colours. Blue and orange pixels on an LCD television screen. Closeup of the red, green and blue sub-pixels on left. Natural dyes to colour cloth and tapestries were made from plants.
Woad and true indigo were used to produce indigo dye used to colour fabrics blue or indigo. Reflex blue” used to be the name of a common blue pigment in ink manufacturing. Pantone “Reflex Blue” has the particularity of being identified only by this name, and not by a number code. Lapis lazuli, mined in Afghanistan for more than three thousand years, was used for jewellery and ornaments, and later was crushed and powdered and used as a pigment. The more it was ground, the lighter the blue colour became.
Azurite, common in Europe and Asia, is produced by the weathering of copper ore deposits. Natural ultramarine, made by grinding and purifying lapis lazuli, was the finest available blue pigment in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Egyptian blue, the first artificial pigment, created in the third millennium BC in Ancient Egypt by grinding sand, copper and natron, and then heating them. It was often used in tomb paintings and funereal objects to protect the dead in their afterlife. Ground azurite was often in Renaissance used as a substitute for the much more expensive lapis lazuli. It made a rich blue, but was unstable and could turn dark green over time. Cerulean was created with copper and cobalt oxide, and used to make a sky blue colour.
Like azurite, it could fade or turn green. Gothic cathedrals and Chinese porcelain beginning in the T’ang Dynasty. Indigo dye is made from the woad, Indigofera tinctoria, a plant common in Asia and Africa but little known in Europe until the 15th century. Its importation into Europe revolutionised the colour of clothing. Chemical structure of indigo dye, a widely produced blue dye.
Synthetic ultramarine pigment, invented in 1826, has the same chemical composition as natural ultramarine. It is more vivid than natural ultramarine because the particles are smaller and more uniform in size, and thus distribute the light more evenly. A new synthetic blue created in the 1930s is phthalocyanine, an intense colour widely used for making blue ink, dye, and pigment. Of the colours in the visible spectrum of light, blue has a very short wavelength, while red has the longest wavelength. When sunlight passes through the atmosphere, the blue wavelengths are scattered more widely by the oxygen and nitrogen molecules, and more blue comes to our eyes. Near sunrise and sunset, most of the light we see comes in nearly tangent to the Earth’s surface, so that the light’s path through the atmosphere is so long that much of the blue and even green light is scattered out, leaving the sun rays and the clouds it illuminates red.
Therefore, when looking at the sunset and sunrise, the colour red is more perceptible than any of the other colours. The sea is seen as blue for largely the same reason: the water absorbs the longer wavelengths of red and reflects and scatters the blue, which comes to the eye of the viewer. The farther away an object is, the more blue it often appears to the eye. For example, mountains in the distance often appear blue. Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the Earth a blue halo when seen from space. An example of aerial, or atmospheric perspective.
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Objects become more blue and lighter in colour the farther they are from the viewer, because of Rayleigh scattering. Under the sea, red and other light with longer wavelengths is absorbed, so white objects appear blue. The deeper you go, the darker the blue becomes. In the open sea, only about one per cent of light penetrates to a depth of 200 metres. A blue giant is the largest type of stars. Blue eyes actually contain no blue pigment. The colour is caused by an effect called Rayleigh scattering, which also makes the sky appear blue.
Blue eyes do not actually contain any blue pigment. Blue eyes are most common in Ireland, the Baltic Sea area and Northern Europe, and are also found in Eastern, Central, and Southern Europe. In the United States, as of 2006, one out of every six people, or 16. Americans born in 1900, and a third of Americans born in 1950. Blue eyes are becoming less common among American children. 5 per cent more likely to have blue eyes than girls. Lasers emitting in the blue region of the spectrum became widely available to the public in 2010 with the release of inexpensive high-powered 445-447 nm laser diode technology.
Blue was a latecomer among colours used in art and decoration, as well as language and literature. Reds, blacks, browns, and ochres are found in cave paintings from the Upper Paleolithic period, but not blue. Lapis lazuli, a semi-precious stone, has been mined in Afghanistan for more than three thousand years, and was exported to all parts of the ancient world. In Iran and Mesopotamia, it was used to make jewellery and vessels. In Egypt blue was associated with the sky and with divinity. The Egyptian god Amun could make his skin blue so that he could fly, invisible, across the sky.
Mediterranean still wear a blue amulet, representing the eye of God, to protect them from misfortune. The ancient Greeks classified colours by whether they were light or dark, rather than by their hue. The Greek word for dark blue, kyaneos, could also mean dark green, violet, black or brown. The ancient Greek word for a light blue, glaukos, also could mean light green, grey, or yellow.
The Greeks imported indigo dye from India, calling it indikon. Blue was considered the colour of mourning, and the colour of barbarians. Julius Caesar reported that the Celts and Germans dyed their faces blue to frighten their enemies, and tinted their hair blue when they grew old. A hippo decorated with aquatic plants, made of faience with a blue glaze, made to resemble lapis lazuli.
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The figure is made of faience with a blue glaze, designed to resemble turquoise. A lion against a blue background from the Ishtar Gate of ancient Babylon. Dark blue was widely used in the decoration of churches in the Byzantine Empire. In Byzantine art Christ and the Virgin Mary usually wore dark blue or purple. Blue was used as a background colour representing the sky in the magnificent mosaics which decorated Byzantine churches. In the Islamic world, blue was of secondary importance to green, believed to be the favourite colour of the Prophet Mohammed.
At certain times in Moorish Spain and other parts of the Islamic world, blue was the colour worn by Christians and Jews, because only Muslims were allowed to wear white and green. Persian miniature from the 16th century. Flower-pattern tile from Iznik, Turkey, from the second half of the 16th century. In the art and life of Europe during the early Middle Ages, blue played a minor role. The nobility wore red or purple, while only the poor wore blue clothing, coloured with poor-quality dyes made from the woad plant. Blue played no part in the rich costumes of the clergy or the architecture or decoration of churches.
Another important factor in the increased prestige of the colour blue in the 12th century was the veneration of the Virgin Mary, and a change in the colours used to depict her clothing. In earlier centuries her robes had usually been painted in sombre black, grey, violet, dark green or dark blue. Ultramarine was made from lapis lazuli, from the mines of Badakshan, in the mountains of Afghanistan, near the source of the Oxus River. France to regularly dress in blue. This was copied by other nobles. Paintings of the mythical King Arthur began to show him dressed in blue.
Once blue became the colour of the king, it also became the colour of the wealthy and powerful in Europe. In the Middle Ages in France and to some extent in Italy, the dyeing of blue cloth was subject to license from the crown or state. In Italy, the dyeing of blue was assigned to a specific guild, the tintori di guado, and could not be done by anyone else without severe penalty. The wearing of blue implied some dignity and some wealth. Besides ultramarine, several other blues were widely used in the Middle Ages and later in the Renaissance. Azurite, a form of copper carbonate, was often used as a substitute for ultramarine.
The Romans used it under the name lapis armenius, or Armenian stone. The British called it azure of Amayne, or German azure. The Germans themselves called it bergblau, or mountain stone. Another blue often used in the Middle Ages was called tournesol or folium.
It was made from the plant Crozophora tinctoria, which grew in the south of France. It made a fine transparent blue valued in medieval manuscripts. Another common blue pigment was smalt, which was made by grinding blue cobalt glass into a fine powder. It made a deep violet blue similar to ultramarine, and was vivid in frescoes, but it lost some of its brilliance in oil paintings. It became especially popular in the 17th century, when ultramarine was difficult to obtain. Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière window, Chartres Cathedral. Virgin Mary in a robe painted with ultramarine.
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Blue became the colour of holiness, virtue and humility. In the 12th century blue became part of the royal coat of arms of France. The Wilton Diptych, made for King Richard II of England, made lavish use of ultramarine. The Coronation of King Louis VIII of France in 1223 showed that blue had become the royal colour. Artists had to adapt their use of blue to the new rules.
In medieval paintings, blue was used to attract the attention of the viewer to the Virgin Mary, and identify her. Ultramarine was the most prestigious blue of the Renaissance, and patrons sometimes specified that it be used in paintings they commissioned. Virgin Mary be coloured with ultramarine costing “at least five good florins an ounce. Often painters or clients saved money by using less expensive blues, such as azurite smalt, or pigments made with indigo, but this sometimes caused problems. Pigments made from azurite were less expensive, but tended to turn dark and green with time. The introduction of oil painting changed the way colours looked and how they were used.
Ultramarine pigment, for instance, was much darker when used in oil painting than when used in tempera painting, in frescoes. To balance their colours, Renaissance artists like Raphael added white to lighten the ultramarine. The sombre dark blue robe of the Virgin Mary became a brilliant sky blue. Throughout the 14th and 15th centuries, the robes of the Virgin Mary were painted with ultramarine.
Raphael used white to soften the ultramarine blue of Virgin Mary’s robes to balance the red and blue, and to harmonise with the rest of the picture. In this painting of The Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints an early work by Raphael in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the blue cloak of the Virgin Mary has turned a green-black. It was painted with less-expensive azurite. The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry was the most important illuminated manuscript of the 15th century. The blue was the extravagantly expensive ultramarine. Other famous white and blue patterns appeared in Delft, Meissen, Staffordshire, and Saint Petersburg, Russia. Chinese blue and white porcelain from about 1335, made in Jingdezhen, the porcelain centre of China.
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Exported to Europe, this porcelain launched the style of Chinoiserie. A soft-paste porcelain vase made in Rouen, France, at the end of the 17th century, imitating Chinese blue and white. Eighteenth century blue and white pottery from Delft, in the Netherlands. Russian porcelain of the cobalt net pattern, made with cobalt blue pigment.
The Imperial Porcelain Factory in Saint Petersburg was founded in 1744. Johannes Vermeer used natural ultramarine in his paintings, as in his Girl with a Pearl Earring. The expense was probably borne by his wealthy patron Pieter van Ruijven. While blue was an expensive and prestigious colour in European painting, it became a common colour for clothing during the Renaissance. The rise of the colour blue in fashion in the 12th and 13th centuries led to a blue dye industry in several cities, notably Amiens, Toulouse, and Erfurt. The fabric was then soaked for a day in the resulting mixture, then put out in the sun, where as it dried it turned blue. The Asian indigo dye precursors is more readily obtained.
In 1498, Vasco de Gama opened a trade route to import indigo from India to Europe. The countries with large and prosperous pastel industries tried to block the use of indigo. The German government outlawed the use of indigo in 1577, describing it as a “pernicious, deceitful and corrosive substance, the Devil’s dye. In 1737 both the French and German governments finally allowed the use of indigo. This ruined the dye industries in Toulouse and the other cities that produced pastel, but created a thriving new indigo commerce to seaports such as Bordeaux, Nantes and Marseille. Another war of the blues took place at the end of the 19th century, between indigo and synthetic indigo, discovered in 1868 by the German chemist Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer. The German chemical firm BASF put the new dye on the market in 1897, in direct competition with the British-run indigo industry in India, which produced most of the world’s indigo.
Isatis tinctoria, or woad, was the main source of blue dye in Europe from ancient times until the arrival of indigo from Asia and America. It was processed into a paste called pastel. A woad mill in Thuringia, in Germany, in 1752. The woad industry was already on its way to extinction, unable to compete with indigo blue. A Dutch tapestry from 1495 to 1505. The blue colour comes from woad.
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Indigofera tinctoria, a tropical shrub, is the main source of indigo dye. The chemical composition of indigo dye is the same as that of woad, but the colour is more intense. The leaf has been soaked in water, fermented, mixed with lye or another base, then pressed into cakes and dried, ready for export. In the 17th century, Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, was one of the first rulers to give his army blue uniforms. German states were trying to protect their pastel dye industry against competition from imported indigo dye. Thanks in part to the availability of indigo dye, the 18th century saw the widespread use of blue military uniforms.
Prior to 1748, British naval officers simply wore upper-class civilian clothing and wigs. In 1748, the British uniform for naval officers was officially established as an embroidered coat of the colour then called marine blue, now known as navy blue. In the late 18th century, the blue uniform became a symbol of liberty and revolution. When the Continental Army was established in 1775 at the outbreak of the American Revolution, the first Continental Congress declared that the official uniform colour would be brown, but this was not popular with many militias, whose officers were already wearing blue.
In France the Gardes Françaises, the elite regiment which protected Louis XVI, wore dark blue uniforms with red trim. In 1789, the soldiers gradually changed their allegiance from the king to the people, and they played a leading role in the storming of the Bastille. Napoleon Bonaparte abandoned many of the doctrines of the French Revolution but he kept blue as the uniform colour for his army, although he had great difficulty obtaining the blue dye, since the British controlled the seas and blocked the importation of indigo to France. Napoleon was forced to dye uniforms with woad, which had an inferior blue colour. Blue was the colour of liberty and revolution in the 18th century, but in the 19th it increasingly became the colour of government authority, the uniform colour of policemen and other public servants. It was considered serious and authoritative, without being menacing. The New York City Police Department, modelled after the London Metropolitan Police, was created in 1844, and in 1853, they were officially given a navy blue uniform, the colour they wear today.
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Navy blue is one of the most popular school uniform colors, with the Toronto Catholic District School Board adopting a dress code policy which requires students system-wide to wear white tops and navy blue bottoms. When Brandenburg became the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701, blue became the uniform colour of the Prussian Army. Marine blue became the official colour of the Royal Navy uniform coat in 1748. George Washington chose blue and buff as the colours of the Continental Army uniform. They were the colours of the English Whig Party, which Washington admired.