The Milwaukee Cryptosporidium outbreak: assessment of incubation time and daily attack rate

DEFRA and the British Horse Society are to hold talks next month to clear up the scare over hosepipe the Milwaukee Cryptosporidium outbreak: assessment of incubation time and daily attack rate on equestrian yards. Water Supply Industry Interpretations and Advice e. Backflow: Levels of risk “The water utilities have a duty to supply water, which complies with the water regulations, and the water industry act 1991. This ensures the supply of clean wholesome water suitable for domestic or food production purposes.

Holliston waits out ban “An emergency water ban remains in effect for west Holliston after a fan sucked in epoxy fumes from a painting project Wednesday at a water treatment plant. As a result, about 1,500 households have been warned not to drink, bathe or cook with the water until further notice. Bacteria Find Delays Move “WALSGRAVE Hospital bosses have delayed moving into new buildings after potentially-killer bacteria was found in the water. Dying for A Drink of Clean Water “In the United States and Europe, people take it for granted that when they turn on their taps, clean water will flow out. But for those living in U. Hurricane Katrina, as in large parts of the world, obtaining safe water requires a constant struggle.

Bopf is supposed to be on the board of directors for Rainbow Water. Lyons says they are legal, but Rainbow says they are not. New homes must have 1000-litre rain tanks “ALL new homes in South Australia will have to have a 1000-litre rainwater tank, under strict new water conservation laws detailed yesterday. Luxury nail industry faces health risks “The sign in the window of Chau’s Nails on Aurora Avenue North in Shoreline proudly advertises “SPA PED,” a pedicure in a padded leather massage chair that sits like a throne atop a footbath.

Contractors’ costs, nation’s health still concerns for Stack “Considering how many centuries that plumbing was made out of lead, it’s ironic that Jim Stack suffered lead poisoning from paint. That was good for the plumbing business and bad for the painting business. Towanda Remembers Storm Victims “Wed-nesday at 7 p. City of Towanda opened its council meeting with a moment of silence for the victims of hurricane Katrina.

Auburn seeks public’s help on hydrant safety “Auburn utility officials want residents to get involved with homeland security by keeping an eye on city fire hydrants. Parasite outbreak among worst in U. The contamination at Seneca Lake State Park’s Sprayground is likely one of the largest waterborne parasitic outbreaks nationwide in a decade. According to statistics from the U. City to seek action against illegal water tap “Despite evidence of an unapproved water tap into an Ely city water main, the city may not be able to press criminal charges.

Geneva water playground closes after hundreds report illness “Debbie Pierce of Ithaca called the illness her children experienced after visiting Sprayground in Geneva horrible and debilitating. American Society of Sanitary Engineering  History “The American Society of Sanitary Engineering grew out of a meeting held in Washington, D. Ancient water system discovered near Jerusalem “archaeologists have discovered what they term a “monumental rock-hewn water system” near Jerusalem dating back to the eighth century B. Water company surveys users “The 395 Montezuma Water Co. A Dorset yard owner’s dispute with her local water company over use of hosepipes around horses has uncovered longstanding but little understood legislation that could cost the equestrian world millions. Health Official Says Deadly Infection May Be Treatable ” Researchers say there might be a new weapon to fight the deadly infection that killed two Tulsa boys last week. Tulsa hospitals now know of the possible new treatment.

Tulsa Waterpark May Be Link In Boys’ Deaths “Health officials believe a Tulsa water park may be a link between two Tulsa boys who died Friday from a rare, waterborne disease. The instructions were simple: Just sit there and “look intelligent. Regulations “Subject to the following provisions, every water system shall contain an adequate device or devices for preventing backflow of fluid from any appliance, fitting or process from occurring. Palm Beach County warns of scams targeting its water utility customers “Scam artists have approached about a dozen Palm Beach County households, according to the Palm Beach County Water Utilities Department. The courts have deemed that water is a product and not a service to the public. Aging waterlines require repairs, replacement “Frequent reports of water main breaks and media coverage of a spectacular water spout in Green Tree notwithstanding, local water authorities believe they’re maintaining the viability of their aging infrastructures. We will overcome space setbacks “It was not a pretty sight.

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I was down on all fours in my front yard, butt in the air, fumbling with a wrench trying to shut off a submerged valve I couldn’t see. The Department of the Army “This is a proceeding under the employee protection provisions of the Safe Water Drinking Act, 42 U. Mayor steamed over ‘stinky’ water “Those residents of Andalusia who think they have “stinky water,” will just have to suck it up for now. Preparing for the big show “On Thursday, the first 2005 Fayette County fair-goers will flood through the entrance gates to enjoy the sights, sounds, smells and tastes of all the fair has to offer.

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HOA to change water times “Highlands at Arrowhead Ranch resident Carol Monnig was so concerned about the reclaimed water that sprays out of nearby sprinklers, she took a sample from a sprinkler head for testing. Water tank break-in detected “The day before Akron responded to a national Orange Alert for mass transit on July 7 by increasing vigilance in the city’s sprawling multicounty watershed, Akron police were investigating a security breach much closer to home. City’s water the result of much planning, hard work “When people in Corvallis turn on their tap, they expect a safe and reliable water supply. What they don’t know is what it takes for the city to ensure that safety and reliability.

Water, water everywhere, but not a drop to drink “Drink the water. Tap-water worries “Colorado’s system to oversee the safety of drinking water is significantly understaffed, threatening the integrity of a program designed to protect public health, a federal report says. World supply of clean water at risk “The lack of clean drinking water throughout the world and resulting disease could kill millions of people in coming decades, a Montana State University professor said Friday. Plumbing Employment: An Additional 110,000 Plumbers Are Needed by 2012 “According to the U. Council revises ordinance “The City Council approved changes Tuesday to ordinances it adopted earlier this year aimed at curbing false burglar alarms and requiring some businesses to install safety devices on water lines.

Louis Assistant Chief Plumbing Inspector Arrested On Bribery Charges “A St. Louis Assistant Chief Plumbing Inspector was one of three people arrested in what prosecutors are calling a bribery scheme. 10 water samples taken Thursday, July 7, contained E. Money dispute left town’s water problem simmering “When an O’Fallon, Ill. Disease Contracted from Patient Homes: The Coming of the Third Plague? 150 rebates to Middletown homeowners to pay for plumbing repairs is dead in the water.

The Borough Council rejected the program last month. Governor Blagojevich directs state agencies to conserve water “In an effort to weather current drought conditions, Gov. Surviving the surprise “Dan Mattern spends a lot of his life walking into buildings and surprising people. Mattern isn’t bearing good news, or bad, necessarily. Boil it, city sez “City officials warned sick and frail New Yorkers to boil their tap water until noon today after muddy runoff into one of the city’s reservoirs caused a glitch in purifying drinking water.

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Sewage in water kills six in Pakistan, 500 sick “Six people died in the Pakistani city of Lahore and about 500 were sick after drinking water that was contaminated by sewage believed to have seeped into the city’s supply lines, an official said on Thursday. Lack of Water-Borne Disease a Silent Success “Away from the cameras and the headline-grabbing stories is a quiet miracle, of sorts, that has unfolded within the wasteland areas of Asia’s tsunami-devastated countries: There was no massive outbreak of water-borne diseases amongst children as initially feared. WATER SUPPLY, PLUMBING REPAIRS FACTORS IN LEGIONNAIRES’ DISEASE “People living in homes in which there have been recent plumbing repairs may be at increased risk of contracting Legionnaires’ disease, new research suggests. The ability to regularly deliver safe drinking water to people’s homes is a constant challenge to water suppliers.

Tempers flare at Sharon City Board “”Grievances will be heard with all courtesy. We’re doing the people’s business here to-night. Former Antrim inspector faces felony “For a second time in less than a year, Antrim County’s former building department director is standing trial on a felony charge of corruption by a public official. Summer storms: Lightning poses greatest hazard  “Every crack of thunder that echoes from a storm is caused by lightning jetting across the sky or to the ground with a potentially lethal force. Eyewitness News’ Sarah Wallace reported tonight on Legionnaires’ Disease at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. So what exactly is Legionnaires’ Disease? How is it transmitted and who is at risk?

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Legionnaires’ disease caused resident’s death “Legionnaires’ disease was a contributing factor in the death of a 63-year-old Tarrytown man, test results confirmed yesterday. 300,000 to inspector’s company “Maybe you don’t need “Deep Throat” to tell you about the Mazzer scandal in Garfield. Legionnaires’ Disease Strikes Two Norfolk Postal Workers “Health officials are investigating after two workers at the main Norfolk postal facility on Church Street recently contracted Legionnaires’ Disease. While the conditions of the two workers is not known, one has been hospitalized. 4 billion to plug up or replace aging or ailing water systems, the Environmental Protection Agency says. Water quality measures up in city “The City of Columbus received a favorable report on its water quality as part of an annual report recently released. Villagers demanding water turn unruly, 5 die in police firing “Five people were killed and 22, including 15 policemen, were injured in police firing and heavy stone-pelting by farmers who blocked traffic on the Jaipur-Kota National Highway today, demanding adequate water.

Water Safety Tops EPA Chief’s List “EPA Administrator Stephen L. Falls issues water health advisory “Columbia Falls and Montana Department of Environmental Quality officials issued a drinking-water health advisory Wednesday evening after discovering an unsuccessful attempt to break into the city’s water storage tank. 8 million over the next two fiscal years for pay raises agreed to in a tentative deal with its largest employees union, according to a report released Friday. The Rainbow backflow “Per orders from the Rainbow Water District I installed a backflow RP device about 18 months ago. Now I have been advised that it is not necessary for my residential account.

Boil order is discontinued “A boil order and health advisory have been lifted for Mountain Water Co. Some Missoula residents under boil order “Some customers of Mountain Water Co. 4,000 each for sneaking in plumbing lines to a new subdivision without the proper permits, city officials said Monday. It is a distinctly suburban crime.

City cleans house at Water Dept. Irrigation district to tap the wallets of water thieves “The Vista Irrigation District is cracking down on water pirates after 11 thefts were discovered over the past year. Hundreds walk off job at Alcan “HUNDREDS of workers have walked off the job over fears of potential water contamination at one of Australia’s biggest industrial projects. 150,000 after its workers drank and showered in water contaminated with uranium last year.

Rainwater tanks often host to harmful bugs “Studies show rainwater collected from roofs, far from being pure, mostly fails to meet drinking standards. Massey University lecturer Stan Abbott said e-coli and faecal coliforms were present in more than half of the rainwater storage tanks monitored. Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file. Type 508 Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail. To view the erratum, please click here. National Center for Infectious Diseases Jonathan E. Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research William R.

National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC Jonathan E. National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC Brian R. National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC Robert T. National Immunization Program, CDC Raleigh A.

New York, New York John R. Stony Brook, New York Roger H. The guidelines were drafted with the assistance of a working group of experts in infectious diseases, transplantation, and public health. The working group defined OIs as infections that occur with increased frequency or severity among HSCT recipients, and they drafted evidence-based recommendations for preventing exposure to and disease caused by bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoal, or helminthic pathogens. During March 1997, the working group presented the first draft of these guidelines at a meeting of representatives from public and private health organizations. The first recommendations presented in this report are followed by recommendations for hospital infection control, strategies for safe living, vaccinations, and hematopoietic stem cell safety. Unless otherwise noted, these recommendations address allogeneic and autologous and pediatric and adult HSCT recipients.

The principles of this rating system were developed by the Infectious Disease Society of America and the U. HSCTs are classified as either allogeneic or autologous on the basis of the source of the transplanted hematopoietic progenitor cells. Cells used in allogeneic HSCTs are harvested from a donor other than the transplant recipient. Allogeneic donors might be a blood relative or an unrelated donor.

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The patient’s own cells are used in an autologous HSCT. Similar to autologous transplants are syngeneic transplants, among whom the HLA-identical twin serves as the donor. Autologous HSCTs are preferred for patients who require high-level or marrow-ablative chemotherapy to eradicate an underlying malignancy but have healthy, undiseased bone marrows. Autologous HSCTs are also preferred when the immunologic antitumor effect of an allograft is not beneficial. These harvested cells are used primarily for allogeneic transplants among children. HSCT is also evolving rapidly in other areas.

GVHD is a condition in which the donated cells recognize the recipient’s cells as nonself and attack them. Despite high morbidity and mortality after HSCT, recipients who survive long-term are likely to enjoy good health. HSCT to treat the underlying disease. During the first month after HSCT, the major host-defense deficits include impaired phagocytosis and damaged mucocutaneous barriers. Additionally, indwelling intravenous catheters are frequently placed and left in situ for weeks to administer parenteral medications, blood products, and nutritional supplements. GVHD occurs primarily among allogeneic recipients, particularly those receiving matched, unrelated donor transplants.

Immune system recovery for HSCT recipients takes place in three phases beginning at day 0, the day of transplant. Because of limited data, no recommendations can be made regarding the routine use of antibiotics for bacterial prophylaxis among afebrile, asymptomatic neutropenic recipients. IVIG has been recommended for use in producing immune system modulation for GVHD prevention. Antibiotic selection should be guided by local antibiotic resistance patterns.

Recommendations for preventing bacterial infections are the same among pediatric or adult HSCT recipients. Appropriate care precautions should be taken with hospitalized patients infected with Stre. Information regarding the currently available 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine indicates limited immunogenicity among HSCT recipients. Because Streptococci viridans colonize the oropharynx and gut, no effective method of preventing exposure is known. Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is a potential source of Streptococci viridans bacteremia.

No data were found that demonstrate efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics for this infection. Adults and children who are in contact with the HSCT recipient and who have known or suspected invasive Hib disease, including meningitis, bacteremia, or epiglottitis, should be placed in droplet precautions until 24 hours after they begin appropriate antibiotic therapy, after which they can be switched to standard precautions. Antibiotic selection should be guided by local antibiotic-resistance patterns. Recommendations for preventing Hib infections are the same for allogeneic or autologous recipients. However, even long-time monogamous pairs can be discordant for CMV infections. Physicians are cautioned that CMV excretion can be episodic or prolonged.

Preemptive strategy restricts ganciclovir use for those patients who have evidence of CMV infection after HSCT. HSCT physicians should select one of two diagnostic tests to determine the need for preemptive treatment. CMV-DNA PCR or CMV pp65 antigenemia tests. 48 hours and routine viral cultures can require weeks to obtain final results. Thus, viral culture techniques are less satisfactory than PCR or antigenemia tests. No recommendation for oral ganciclovir use among HSCT recipients can be made because clinical trials evaluating its efficacy are still in progress.

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If viremia persists after 4 weeks of ganciclovir preemptive therapy or if the level of antigenemia continues to rise after 3 weeks of therapy, ganciclovir-resistant CMV should be suspected. Cidofovir, a nucleoside analog, is approved by FDA for the treatment of AIDS-associated CMV retinitis. The drug’s major disadvantage is nephrotoxicity. Use of CMV-negative or leukocyte-reduced blood products is not routinely required for all autologous recipients because most have a substantially lower risk for CMV disease. Prophylactic approach to CMV disease prevention is not appropriate for CMV-seropositive autologous recipients.

However, insufficient data were found to recommend its use. HSV IgG serology testing is not necessary. Only FDA-licensed or -approved tests should be used. FDA has not approved valacyclovir for use among recipients. HSV prophylaxis with famciclovir can be made. Researchers recommend that a past history of varicella accompanied by a positive titer is more likely to indicate the presence of immunity to VZV than a low positive titer alone. Contact precautions should be continued until all skin lesions are crusted.

24 months after HSCT who are presumed immunocompetent. Further research is needed to determine the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of VZV vaccine among HSCT recipients. Recommendations for VZV prevention are the same for allogeneic or autologous recipients. To date, experience is limited regarding use of zanamivir or oseltamivir in the treatment or prophylaxis of influenza among HSCT settings. However, the effectiveness in preventing influenza-related complications and the safety of this strategy have not been evaluated among HSCT recipients. Therefore, data are insufficient to make a recommendation. However, because of lack of data, no recommendation for use of these strategies among HSCT recipients can be made.

Recommendations Regarding Parainfluenza Virus and Adenovirus. However, no recommendation can be made in these guidelines because of insufficient data. No commercially licensed vaccines against parainfluenza or adenovirus are currently available. The recommendations for preventing CRV infections and their recurrence are the same for allogeneic or autologous recipients.