Jump to navigation Jump to search For other ships with the same name, see USS Indianapolis. Torpedoed and sunk, the Indianapolis Star from Indianapolis, Indiana · Page N6 July 1945, by Japanese submarine I-58.
Portland-class heavy cruiser of the United States Navy, named for the city of Indianapolis, Indiana. In 1945, the sinking of Indianapolis led to the greatest single loss of life at sea, from a single ship, in the history of the US Navy. The ship had four propeller shafts and four Parsons GT geared turbines and eight White-Forster boilers. 55 caliber Mark 9 guns in three triple mounts, a superfiring pair fore and one aft.
Portland-class cruisers were outfitted as fleet flagships, with space for a flag officer and his staff. The class also had two aircraft catapult amidships. Indianapolis was laid down by New York Shipbuilding Corporation on 31 March 1930. The hull and machinery were provided by the builder. Smeallie, Indianapolis undertook her shakedown cruise through the Atlantic and into Guantánamo Bay, until 23 February 1932. On 6 September, she embarked Secretary of the Navy Claude A.
Swanson, for an inspection of the Navy in the Pacific. Indianapolis toured the Canal Zone, Hawaii, and installations in San Pedro and San Diego. On 7 December 1941, Indianapolis was conducting a mock bombardment at Johnston Atoll, during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Rabaul, New Britain, escorting the aircraft carrier Lexington. On 10 March, the task force, reinforced by another force centered on the carrier Yorktown, attacked Lae and Salamaua, New Guinea, where the Japanese were marshaling amphibious forces.
Indianapolis then headed for the North Pacific to support American units in the Battle of the Aleutian Islands. On 7 August, Indianapolis and the task force attacked Kiska Island, a Japanese staging area. Although fog hindered observation, Indianapolis and other ships fired their main guns into the bay. In January 1943, Indianapolis supported a landing and occupation on Amchitka, part of an Allied island hopping strategy in the Aleutian Islands. On the evening of 19 February, Indianapolis led two destroyers on a patrol southwest of Attu Island, searching for Japanese ships trying to reinforce Kiska and Attu.
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After refitting at Mare Island, Indianapolis moved to Hawaii as flagship of Vice Admiral Raymond A. Indianapolis in 1944 dazzle camouflage pattern. The cruiser met other ships of her task force at Tarawa, and on D-Day minus 1, 31 January 1944, she was one of the cruisers that bombarded the islands of Kwajalein Atoll. The shelling continued on D-Day, with Indianapolis suppressing two enemy shore batteries. In March and April, Indianapolis, still flagship of the 5th Fleet, attacked the Western Carolines. 31 March, sank three destroyers, 17 freighters, five oilers and damaged 17 other ships.
In June, the 5th Fleet was busy with the assault on the Mariana Islands. Raids on Saipan began with carrier-based planes on 11 June, followed by surface bombardment, in which Indianapolis had a major role, from 13 June. A combined US fleet fought the Japanese on 19 June, in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. Japanese carrier planes, which planned to use the airfields of Guam and Tinian, to refuel and rearm, were met by carrier planes and the guns of the Allied escorting ships. Meanwhile, Guam had been taken, and Indianapolis was the first ship to enter Apra Harbor, since early in the war. This section does not cite any sources.
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Overhauled, Indianapolis joined VADM Marc A. Mitscher’s fast carrier task force on 14 February 1945. Two days later, the task force launched an attack on Tokyo to cover the landings on Iwo Jima, scheduled for 19 February. This was the first carrier attack on Japan since the Doolittle Raid. Indianapolis off Mare Island, on 10 July 1945. Immediately after the strikes, the task force raced to the Bonin Islands, to support the landings on Iwo Jima.
The ship remained there until 1 March, protecting the invasion ships and bombarding targets in support of the landings. The next target for the US forces was Okinawa, in the Ryukyu Islands, which were in range of aircraft from the Japanese mainland. The fast carrier force was tasked with attacking airfields in southern Japan until they were incapable of launching effective airborne opposition to the impending invasion. The fast carrier force departed for Japan from Ulithi, on 14 March. Pre-invasion bombardment of Okinawa began on 24 March.
Indianapolis spent 7 days pouring 8-inch shells into the beach defenses. During this time, enemy aircraft repeatedly attacked the American ships. Indianapolis shot down six planes and damaged two others. San Francisco to Pearl Harbor, which still stands today.
Indianapolis was then sent to Guam, where a number of the crew who had completed their tours of duty were replaced by other sailors. Leaving Guam on 28 July, she began sailing toward Leyte, where her crew was to receive training before continuing on to Okinawa, to join VADM Jesse B. The Japanese captain said that he fired at a range of 3 miles, there were two hits and it was “a difficult shot”. Navy command did not know of the ship’s sinking until survivors were spotted three and a half days later. At 10:25 on 2 August, a PV-1 Ventura flown by Lieutenant Wilbur “Chuck” Gwinn and his copilot, Lieutenant Warren Colwell, spotted the men adrift while on a routine patrol flight.
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Ocean of Fear”, a 2007 episode of the Discovery Channel TV documentary series Shark Week, states that the sinking of Indianapolis resulted in the most shark attacks on humans in history, and attributes the attacks to the oceanic whitetip shark species. The Headquarters of Commander Marianas on Guam and of the Commander Philippine Sea Frontier on Leyte, kept Operations plotting boards on which were plotted the positions of all vessels with which the headquarters were concerned. However, it was assumed that ships as large as Indianapolis would reach their destinations on time, unless reported otherwise. Survivors of Indianapolis on Guam, in August 1945. In the first official statement, the Navy said that distress calls “were keyed by radio operators and possibly were actually transmitted” but that “no evidence has been developed that any distress message from the ship was received by any ship, aircraft or shore station”. Declassified records later showed that three stations received the signals but none acted upon the call. When the ship didn’t reach Leyte on the 31st, as scheduled, no report was made that she was overdue.
This omission was due to a misunderstanding of the Movement Report System. In November 1945, he was court-martialed and convicted of “hazarding his ship by failing to zigzag”. Several aspects of the court-martial were controversial. Our family’s holiday would be a lot merrier if you hadn’t killed my son”, read one piece of mail. In 1996, sixth-grade student Hunter Scott began his research on the sinking of Indianapolis for a class history project, an assignment which eventually led to a United States Congressional investigation.
Navy firing detail as part of a burial-at-sea in 2008 for one of the 316 survivors of Indianapolis sinking on 30 July 1945. The wreck of Indianapolis is located in the Philippine Sea. August 2001, an expedition sought to find the wreckage through the use of side-scan sonar and underwater cameras mounted on a remotely operated vehicle. In July 2016, new information came out regarding the possible location of Indianapolis when naval records said that LST-779 passed by the ship 11 hours before the torpedoes struck.
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Using this information, National Geographic planned to mount an expedition to search for the wreck in the summer of 2017. In September 2017, a map detailing the wreckage was released. The main part of the wreck lies in an impact crater. Its bow, which broke off before the ship sank, lies 1. The two forward 8-inch guns, which also broke off on the surface and mark the ship’s last position on the surface, lie 0.
The single 8-inch gun turret on the stern remains in place. Airplane wreckage from the ship lies about 0. Since 1960, surviving crew members have been meeting for reunions in Indianapolis. 26 July 2015, 14 of the 32 remaining survivors attended. The reunions are open to anyone interested, and have more attendees each year, even as the number of survivors decreases from death. Held only periodically at first, biannually later on, the reunions have been held annually for the past several years.
References to the Indianapolis sinking and aftermath have been adapted to film, stage, television, and popular culture. Probably the most well known fictional reference to the events occurs in the 1975 thriller film Jaws in a monologue by actor Robert Shaw, whose character Quint is depicted as a survivor of the Indianapolis sinking. A few years after the release of Jaws, co-writer Howard Sackler proposed making a prequel film based on the sinking of Indianapolis. Sara Vladic directed USS Indianapolis: The Legacy, which tells the fate of USS Indianapolis using exclusively first-person accounts from the survivors of the sinking. This film was released in December 2015.
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USS Indianapolis: Men of Courage, starring Nicolas Cage, was released in October 2016, with Mario Van Peebles directing. The USS Indianapolis Museum had its grand opening on 7 July 2007, with its gallery in the Indiana War Memorial Museum at the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza. The USS Indianapolis National Memorial was dedicated on 2 August 1995. It is located on the Canal Walk in Indianapolis. The heavy cruiser is depicted in limestone and granite and sits adjacent to the downtown canal.
In May 2011, highway I-465 around Indianapolis was named the USS Indianapolis Memorial Highway. Some material relating to Indianapolis is held by the Indiana State Museum. Her bell and a commissioning pennant are located at the Heslar Naval Armory. USS Indianapolis wreckage found 72 years later”. Little Boy”, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, was also inscribed with numerous autographs and graffiti by ground crews who loaded it into the plane.
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One of them read: “Greetings to the Emperor from the men of the Indianapolis”. The Tragic Fate of the U. The Final Storm: A Novel of the War in the Pacific. Japan 1945: From Operation Downfall to Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Submarine I-58: Tabular Record of Movement”. The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia: Portland Class, U.
Discovery Channel’s Shark Week: Ocean of Fear”. The Sinking of USS Indianapolis: Navy Department Press Release, Narrative of the Circumstances of the Loss of USS Indianapolis”. For The Good of the Navy”. Connecticut’s Heroes Aboard the Doomed USS Indianapolis”. At USS Indianapolis Museum Archived 30 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. New Lead Uncovered in Search for USS Indianapolis”. New Details On Final Resting Place Of USS Indianapolis – News – Indiana Public Media”.
USS Indianapolis discovered 18,000 feet below Pacific surface”. Wreckage of USS Indianapolis found in Philippine Sea”. Navy: USS Indianapolis Wreckage Well Preserved by Depth and Undersea Environment”. USS Indianapolis, famous US Navy ship at the centre of”. Warship’s Last Survivors Recall Sinking in Shark-Infested Waters”.
Hundreds mark 70th anniversary of USS Indianapolis attack”. Beilue: For the dwindling few, the USS Indianpolis reunion is too meaningful to ignore”. Mission of the Shark: The Saga of the U. USS Indianapolis Production Delayed After Vintage Plane Waterlogged”. Archived from the original on 30 December 2006.