Shelly Johnston – found 200+ in the US

Bermuda, regularly updated as a Gazetteer, focusing on this internally self-governing British Overseas Territory 900 miles north shelly Johnston – found 200+ in the US the Caribbean, 600 miles east of North Carolina, USA. Bermuda was first sighted in 1505, but not settled 1502.

Christopher Columbus took his fourth voyage to the New World. Bermuda was believed to have been discovered by accident by Juan de Bermudez, Captain of La Garza, a Spanish vessel, part of a Spanish fleet sailing from Cadiz to Mexico. Spanish courtier, writer and historian Gonzalo Ferdinandez ‘Oviedo y Valdez  sailed near Bermuda but was unable to land. However, he recorded an account of the island as it was then. Roanoke Island in 1585 on an expedition commanded by Sir Ralph Lane. In 1587, a second colony of 116 English settlers landed on Roanoke Island, led by White.

He left the island for England for more supplies but couldn’t return again until 1590 because of the war between England and Spain. When he came back, the colony was gone. Annapolis Royal, in Nova Scotia, became the first permanent English-speaking settlement in North America. In April, King James I issued a charter to the Virginia Company for land along mid Atlantic coast.

June 2, not long after her launch, the Virginia Company’s ship “Sea Venture” sailed on its maiden voyage from Plymouth, England for Jamestown, Virginia. She was built in 1609 in Aldeburgh, Suffolk, England, and was England’s first purpose-designed emigrant ship. 1,500, and differed from her contemporaries primarily in her internal arrangements. Jamestown were often starving, and forced to eat dogs, mice, and shoe leather to survive devastating winters. A few written accounts take things one gruesome step farther and suggest that some Jamestown colonists even ate their own dead.

Native American Indians were constantly hostile. Spanish feral hogs, a choice source of food for the newcomers. Jamestown colony with even more new colonists to feed, and few supplies, most of which had been aboard the larger flagship. Bermuda in the collections of the Bermuda National Trust and the other at the British Library. Sir Thomas Gates, Admiral Sir George Somers, and the survivors of the Sea Venture anchored at Fort Algernon, Point Comfort, where they found Captain James Davis and 30 relatively healthy colonists.

But this was not the case in Jamestown. Sir Thomas Gates, Admiral Sir George Somers and the survivors of the shipwreck of the Third Supply mission’s flagship Sea Venture finally arrived at Jamestown in two makeshift small ships Deliverance and Plough under the command of Captain Christopher Newport they had constructed while stranded on Bermuda for nine months. They found fewer than 100 colonists still alive, many of whom were sick. Sir Thomas Gates, with Admiral Sir George Somers and Sea Venture survivors arrived at Jamestown to find 60 gaunt remnants of the 240 or so people who had crowded into James Fort the previous November. These men and women, under the command of George Percy, had barely survived what came to be known as the Starving Time. The Jamestown colony was collapsing until they were saved by the arrival of ships from Bermuda. James River toward the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean.

While sailing up the James River toward the Chesapeake Bay and then Newfoundland, Jamestown colonists encounter a ship bearing the new governor, Sir Thomas West, twelfth baron De La Warr, and a year’s worth of supplies. The colonists returned to Jamestown that evening. In Virginia, after the colonist Humphrey Blunt is taken by Indians and tortured to death near Point Comfort, Sir Thomas Gates, formerly of Bermuda, attacks a nearby Kecoughtan town, killing twelve to fourteen native Indians and confiscating the cornfields. In Jamestown, Virginia, William Strachey, writer and earlier one on the 1609-1610 Bermuda colonists completes a revised version of a letter about the Sea Venture shipwreck and the condition of the Virginia colony. Samuel Purchas as “A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight. Sir Thomas Gates departed Jamestown, Virginia,  for home in England, and his arrival caused a sensation.

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Having survived the disastrous Sea Venture voyage, having staked out Bermuda for future planting, and having helped save the Jamestown colony, he was a hero in England. Admiral Sir George Somers, just arrived back in Bermuda for much needed food for the Jamestown, Virginia colonists, died on the island at the age of 58, it is said from a surfeit of pig. His heart was buried in St. George’s, and his body later taken and buried in Dorset, England, where he was born. Because Sir Thomas Gates, by then back in England after his experiences in Bermuda and Virginia, had served as an outspoken advocate for the Virginia Company at a crucial time, private investors had been persuaded to fund two additional expeditions to Virginia. The first of these was led by Sir Thomas Dale, an acquaintance of Gates since November 1606, when the two met in Oudewater, South Holland. For a number of decades from this date, St.

Shelly Johnston - found 200+ in the US

They remained this way until the early 1700s when limestone was used instead. Governor Richard Moore decided that Paget Fort, on the island of that name, was the most important place to be defended. George was established, with the assistance of the ship Elizabeth which arrived on her first visit, with 30 settlers. An un-named ship arrived at Bermuda with 30 passengers and provisions. The first Governor of Bermuda, Richard Moore, was much occupied in raising a timber watchtower on a hill overtopping the town of St. George’s to the westwards, to serve for the discovery of shipping upon the coast. From that tower, signals would be sent to the town below about sails on the horizon, reinforced one way or the other as soon as the ship was gleaned to be friend or foe.

The ship Elizabeth arrived with 40 settlers on her second visit. The book “A Plaine Description of the Barmudas now called Sommer Ilands” was published. Authors were William Crashaw and Silvester D. Jourdain, a passenger on the Sea Venture. An imagined portrait of John Rolfe and Pocahontas.

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John Rolfe of Jamestown, earlier of Bermuda, by then married to Pocahontas for only about a month, shipped the first tobacco from Virginia to England. At the time, Spain held a virtual monopoly on the lucrative tobacco trade. Most Spanish colonies in the New World were located in southern climates more favorable to tobacco growth than the English settlements, notably Jamestown. On November 23, the Virginia Company surrendered Bermuda to the Crown.

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It figured Bermuda was a poor investment. Bermuda became the first legal offshore colony of Britain. The ship Welcome took away Governor Moore and left provisions. The ship Edwin arrived bringing supplies.

Shelly Johnston - found 200+ in the US

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Hogge money coins of Bermuda from 1615. The bottom photos show the sixpenny piece, shown as the Roman numeral VI, front and rear. After he arrived in 1616, Richard Norwood used a canoe to go from place to place in Bermuda to survey the islands before preparing his detailed pap of Bermuda. He also brought with him to Bermuda a diving bell for pearl diving and wreck salvage. Captain John Smith was imprisoned by French pirates but survived. From them came Hog or Hogge Money. By Royal Assent, Bermuda was granted limited self-government.

The ship Treasurer was a wreck lying in a Bermuda creek. Governor Nathaniel Butler salvaged some guns from her that year and erected them on the Smith’s and Paget Island forts. The ship’s end was recorded by Captain John Smith in 1624. Georgia, by James Oglethorpe in 1732.

The Virginia Company gave a tract of land in what is now Chesterfield County to the shareholders of The Bermuda Company in compensation for the small area of Bermuda they bought in 1612. Death of William Strachey, one of the original Bermuda castaways in 1609 who went to Jamestown to receive prominence and write laws. The Governor of Bermuda sent two cedar chests to Virginia with various agricultural products grown in Bermuda contained in them. It apparently went from Peru to Europe.

Shelly Johnston - found 200+ in the US

Edward Sackville, 4th Earl of Dorset. Captain William Tucker concluded peace negotiations with a Powhatan village by proposing a toast with a drink laced with poison prepared by Dr. 200 Powhatan Indians died instantly and another 50 were slaughtered. The Tempest was believed to have inspired in part by the real-life shipwreck of the Sea Venture that took place off the coast of Bermuda in 1609. The castaways took refuge on the uninhabited island chain, and later accounts of their harrowing adventure and providential delivery circulated throughout London’s literary circles, seducing even the city’s most famous playwright.

Captain John Smith published his Bermuda map showing forts erected in defense of the islands, see graphic below. Captain John Smith’s 1624 Bermuda map showing forts. The book “The Unmasking of Virginia” was published, by Nathaniel Butler. Butler had gone to Virginia after serving as a capable Governor of Bermuda. The book was mostly about the 1622 Indian massacre. It helped bring about the end of the Virginia Company.

The ship George again arrived in Bermuda with settlers and provisions. Slaves weaved home-grown sea island cotton into cloth dyed with indigo. In Bermuda, the population was calculated as 2,500 white and between 300 to 400 black and Native American. English Puritan leader John Winthrop founded Boston. England was introduced to bananas when Thomas Johnston displayed a bunch from Bermuda in his shop window on Snow Hill, London. Establishment of Maryland by Lord Baltimore as a proprietary colony.

Shelly Johnston - found 200+ in the US

Earl of Manchester in those islands in which he was one of the proprietors. Sarah Hunt was one of the nieces of the Earl. In Bermuda, the execution by beheading in Whitehall, London of imprisoned King Charles I caused “Bermuda’s Civil War. To end it, militia members were embodied. The majority of colonists swore allegiance to the crown and forced the Independents or Puritans to leave Bermuda for the Bahamas. A Virginia Company ship, the Eagle, was transporting immigrants from England to Jamestown when it was wrecked on a Bermuda reef.

The Virginia Assembly elected Berkeley as Governor. The monarchy was restored in England. Charles II became King and the Anglican Church regained its status. In Bermuda,  another conspiracy of slaves – this time, joined by white Irish indentured servants – was foiled. The militia began a nightly watch. Virginia institutionalized slavery with a law that made the status of the mother determine slave or free status of the child.

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In England, Charles II received Tangier and Bombay as part of the dowry from Catherine of Braganza, Portugal. In Bermuda, during a severe storm, the ill fated armed British merchant ship Virginia Merchant became grounded near Boat Bay in Southampton Parish. She was a total wreck and sank there with great loss of life. Of the 179 people aboard, only 10 survived. Jamestown’s status as the mandatory port of entry for Virginia ended. The merger of what had been the separate British colony of New Haven in Connecticut as a separate British colony,  with Connecticut proper.

The English Book of Common Prayer was revised. The Royal Society received a charter from Charles II. Louis XIV of France began the Palace of Versailles. Bermuda colonists sent the first exports of honey and beeswax to the Caribbean islands and American colonies.

Pre independence era[edit]

In Bermuda, Warwick Academy was founded as the first school in the New World. One is that it was founded by the Earl of Warwick. Earl of Warwick’s passion for the Elizabethan pastime of bear-baiting. The Warwick Academy School Badge consists of a Crest with a Motto. Bermuda bananas were introduced to England. Richard Norwood completed his second map of Bermuda. At a Bermuda court, it was resolved to prohibit New Englanders and other strangers from importing wine and setting up booths and warehouses to sell their products, in competition with Bermudians.

The establishment of the British colony of New York, by the Duke of York. It was done in a bold military way in the event of trouble but the merchants of the city accepted it willingly, with no damage to the city. The British simply annexed the Dutch American colony of New Netherlands and renamed its capital of New Amsterdam as New York. The establishment of the British colony of New Jersey, by Berkeley and Cartaret. Expectation of a Dutch invasion caused mobilization of all slaves, men and boys over the age of 14. They were ordered to carry weapons when an alarm was sounded.

Sir John Heydon, a relative of Jeremy Heydon, an original investor in the Bermuda Company of the early 17th century, became Deputy Governor then Governor of Bermuda. He arrived at Castle Harbor aboard the Bermuda Company ship “Summers Isles Merchant. He was an uncompromising Puritan and tried his best to inflict his puritanical beliefs on other colonists, much to their annoyance. The establishment of the separate British colony of South Carolina, again by eight noblemen. In Bermuda, John Hardy described boats of five tons with two masts and loose-footed triangular sails. He praised their seaworthiness and noted their ability to sail close to the wind. The Bermuda legislature began efforts to stop the importation of any more slaves, deemed not necessary for a small island the economy of which at that time was based largely on shipbuilding and sailing.

Shelly Johnston - found 200+ in the US

Population of Bermuda was estimated at 8,000 men, women, children and slaves. Bermuda claimed and settled the Turks Islands. In Bermuda, Governor Sir John Heydon and his Council found out how six black men were plotting a slave rebellion. At what is now the Foot of the Lane but what was then the bottom of the Laine, six conspirators were branded with the letter “R” for rogue, had their noses slit and were whipped. Others were also whipped and branded.

1618 survey by John Norwood of the Bermuda Company. The first formal recognition of the Bermuda rig is a manuscript that describes the “Bermoothes saile. Bermuda Governor Sir John Heydon banned the future importation of black and Indian slaves at a time when colonies elsewhere were clamoring for a greater supply. Heydon also exiled the island’s tiny free black, mulatto, and Indian population by ordering them to leave the island within six months or be re-enslaved. John Speed’s 1676 Map of Bermuda above and that part specific to St. Nathaniel Bacon led south Virginians against the Indians in violation of Governor Berkeley’s wishes.