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This will allow you to buy XRP on the exchange. Once the money has been cleared place an order to buy XRP with your money. Not all exchanges will offer directly buying XRP with USD. Kraken, for example, will require you to buy XBT first, and then buy Ripple using those tokens. When the buy order clears, you’re all set. If you want to sell your tokens again at a later date, simply follow the above instructions by buying back dollars with the XRP tokens. Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the species called “elk” in North America.
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Elk range in forest and forest-edge habitat, feeding on grasses, plants, leaves, and bark. Male elk have large antlers which are shed each year. Although they are native to North America and eastern Asia, they have adapted well to countries in which they have been introduced, including Argentina and New Zealand. Their great adaptability may threaten endemic species and ecosystems into which they have been introduced. Elk are susceptible to a number of infectious diseases, some of which can be transmitted to livestock.
Efforts to eliminate infectious diseases from elk populations, largely by vaccination, have had mixed success. Some cultures revere the elk as a spiritual force. In parts of Asia, antlers and their velvet are used in traditional medicines. Elk are hunted as a game species. DNA genetic studies beginning in 1998 show that the two are distinct species. Early European explorers in North America, who were familiar with the smaller red deer of Europe, thought that the larger North American animal resembled a moose, and consequently gave it the name elk, which is the common European name for moose.
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The name wapiti is from the Shawnee and Cree word waapiti, meaning “white rump”. Wapiti is also the preferred name for the species in New Zealand. Until recently, red deer and elk were considered to be one species, Cervus elaphus. Recent DNA studies suggest that there are no more than three or four subspecies of elk. American forms and therefore may belong to this subspecies, too. The elk is a large animal of the ungulate order Artiodactyla, possessing an even number of toes on each foot, similar to those of camels, goats and cattle. Elk are more than twice as heavy as mule deer and have a more reddish hue to their hair coloring, as well as large, buff-colored rump patches and smaller tails.
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Elk gather in herds, while moose are solitary. Only the males have antlers, which start growing in the spring and are shed each winter. The largest antlers may be 1. Antlers are made of bone which can grow at a rate of 2.
During the fall, elk grow a thicker coat of hair, which helps to insulate them during the winter. Manchurian and Alaskan wapitis do not. By early summer, the heavy winter coat has been shed, and elk are known to rub against trees and other objects to help remove hair from their bodies. A bison charges an elk near Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park.
Adult elk usually stay in single-sex groups for most of the year. During the mating period known as the rut, mature bulls compete for the attention of the cow elk and will try to fend off rival bulls from their harem. Rival bulls challenge opponents by bellowing, or bugling, and by paralleling each other, walking back and forth. Dominant bulls follow groups of cows during the rut, from August into early winter.
A bull will defend his harem of 20 cows or more from competing bulls and predators. It is only the mature bulls that usually have large harems, and breeding success peaks at about eight years of age. Bulls have a loud vocalization consisting of screams known as bugling, which can be heard for miles. Bugling is often associated with an adaptation to open environments such as parklands, meadows, and savannas, where sound can travel great distances. Females are attracted to the males that bugle more often and have the loudest call. Female elk have a short estrus cycle of only a day or two, and matings usually involve a dozen or more attempts. Elk live 20 years or more in captivity but average 10 to 13 years in the wild.
In some subspecies that suffer less predation, they may live an average of 15 years in the wild. In North America, wolf and coyote packs and the solitary cougar are the most likely predators, although brown and black bears also prey on elk. Male elk retain their antlers for more than half the year and are less likely to group with other males when they have antlers. Antlers provide a means of defense, as does a strong front-leg kick, which is performed by either sex if provoked. Once the antlers have been shed, bulls tend to form bachelor groups which allow them to work cooperatively at fending off predators. Herds tend to employ one or more scouts while the remaining members eat and rest. After the rut, females form large herds of up to 50 individuals.
When approached by predators, the largest and most robust females may make a stand, using their front legs to kick at their attackers. Guttural grunts and posturing effectively deter all but the most determined predators. Wapiti in New Zealand have no natural predators. As is true for many species of deer, especially those in mountainous regions, elk migrate into areas of higher altitude in the spring, following the retreating snows, and the opposite direction in the fall.
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Hunting pressure also impacts migration and movements. The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem elk herd numbers over 200,000 individuals and during the spring and fall, they take part in the longest elk migration in the continental U. Elk are ruminants and therefore have four-chambered stomachs. Range and wildlife managers conduct surveys of elk pellet groups to monitor populations and resource use. At least 53 species of protist and animal parasites have been identified in elk. Most of these parasites seldom lead to significant mortality among wild or captive elk.
Chronic wasting disease, transmitted by a misfolded protein known as a prion, affects the brain tissue in elk, and has been detected throughout their range in North America. The Gram-negative bacterial disease brucellosis occasionally affects elk in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the only place in the U. In domesticated cattle, brucellosis causes infertility, abortions and reduced milk production. Elk hoof disease was first noticed in the state of Washington in the late 1990s in the Cowlitz River basin, with sporadic reports of deformed hooves. Since then the disease has spread rapidly with increased sightings throughout South West Washington and into Oregon. The disease is characterised by deformed, broken or missing hooves and leads to severe lameness in elk.
Modern subspecies are descended from elk that once inhabited Beringia, a steppe region between Asia and North America that connected the two continents during the Pleistocene. Throughout their range, they live in forest and in forest edge habitat, similar to other deer species. In mountainous regions, they often dwell at higher elevations in summer, migrating down slope for winter. The highly adaptable elk also inhabit semi-deserts in North America, such as the Great Basin. Bull elk on a captive range in Nebraska. The Rocky Mountain elk subspecies has been reintroduced by hunter-conservation organizations in the Appalachian region of the eastern U.
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Outside their native habitat, elk and other deer species, especially white tails, were introduced in areas that previously had few if any large native ungulates. Brought to these countries for hunting and ranching for meat, hides and antler velvet, they have proven highly adaptable and have often had an adverse impact on local ecosystems. The introduction of deer to New Zealand began in the middle of the 19th century, and current populations are primarily European red deer, with only 15 percent being elk. There is significant hybridization of elk with the more numerous red deer to the extent that pure elk may no longer exist in the wild in New Zealand. The woman on the right is wearing an elk tooth dress.
Elk have played an important role in the cultural history of a number of peoples. Pictograms and petroglyphs of elk were carved into cliffs thousands of years ago by the Anasazi of the southwestern U. Neolithic petroglyphs from Asia depict antler-less female elk, which have been interpreted as symbolizing rebirth and sustenance. By the beginning of the Bronze Age, the elk is depicted less frequently in rock art, coinciding with a cultural transformation away from hunting.
The Rocky Mountain elk is the official state animal for Utah. Although breakdown figures for each game species are not available in the 2006 National Survey from the U. Fish and Wildlife Service, hunting of wild elk is most likely the primary economic impact. While elk are not generally harvested for meat production on a large scale, some restaurants offer the meat as a specialty item and it is also available in some grocery stores. United States, Canada and New Zealand, this velvet is collected and sold to markets in East Asia, where it is used in medicine.
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Antlers are also used in artwork, furniture and other novelty items. Elk hides have been used for thousands of years for tepee covering, blankets, clothing and footwear. Modern uses are more decorative, but elk skin shoes, gloves and belts are not uncommon. Since 1967, the Boy Scouts of America have assisted employees at the National Elk Refuge in Wyoming by collecting the antlers which are shed each winter. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Anfangsgründe der Naturlehre and Systema regni animalis.
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Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behavior, and Ecology. The genus Cervus in eastern Eurasia”. Archived from the original on July 6, 2010. Skull and Antlers of Extinct Eastern Elk Unearthed at Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge in Northwestern N. Archived from the original on 2006-09-27. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Alaska Department of Fish and Game.
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Elk of North America, Ecology and Management. Archived from the original on 2007-05-10. University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology. Archived from the original on 2011-06-08.