This blog gives overview for each topic ripple’Field physics for GCSE students. All the best for your exams!

The ripple tank is a container that when filled with water permits the study of water waves. A concentrated light source positioned above the tank forms images of the waves on a screen beneath the tank. Wave crests and troughs project light and dark lines in the screen. The crests act as converging lenses that focus light,producing the bright lines. The troughs act as diverging lenses that scatter light, producing the dark lines. The depth at which the dipper is placed affects the amplitude of the waves, while the frequency of waves is determined by frequency of vibration of the dipper. Refraction of waves involves a change in the direction of waves as they pass from one medium to another.

Refraction is the bending of the path of the waves. It is accompanied by a change in speed and wavelength of the waves. It was mentioned that the speed of a wave is dependent upon the properties of the medium through which the waves travel. The most significant property of water which would affect the speed of waves traveling on its surface is the depth of the water. This boundary behavior of water waves can be observed in a ripple tank if the tank is partitioned into a deep and a shallow section. If a pane of glass is placed in the bottom of the tank, one part of the tank will be deep and the other part of the tank will be shallow.

Water waves travel fastest when the medium is the deepest. Thus, if water waves are passing from deep water into shallow water, they will slow down and also the wavelength of the plane waves shorten. The frequency remains the same as it is determined by the dipper. Using the equation, v:f x L,the speed of the waves is therefore slower at the shallow water.

Refraction of waves can be demonstrated by placing the plastic sheet at an angle to the incoming waves . As observed earlier, the differene in the depth of water causes a change in speed of waves. Similar to light, when waves enter a region of shallow water at an angle, the waves refract. Reflection of waves can be demonstrated by placing a straight barrier upright in the water causing the incoming incident waves to be reflected. The law of reflection is obeyed and the Angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. Reflection, refraction and diffraction are all boundary behaviors of waves associated with the bending of the path of a wave. The bending of the path is an observable behavior when the medium is a two- or three-dimensional medium.

Reflection occurs when there is a bouncing off of a barrier. Reflection of waves off straight barriers follows the law of reflection. Reflection of waves off parabolic barriers results in the convergence of the waves at a focal point. Let It Ripple’s mission is to use film, technology, discussion materials, and events to engage a 21st century audience in conversation and action around complicated subjects that are shaping our lives. Our experiment we call Cloud Filmmaking began by asking, what would it look like to make a film collaboratively with people around the world?


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I hope you have found this site to be useful. If you have any corrections, additions, or comments, please contact me. Please note that I am not able to respond to all requests. Please consult a major dictionary before e-mailing your query. Links to this page may be made without permission. When you’re ready for an exciting party that’ll have your friends talking for years, rent a party bus from Broad Ripple Party Bus.

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This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Digital Marketing by The Web Guys. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia’s quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. In physics and engineering, a ripple tank is a shallow glass tank of water used in schools and colleges to demonstrate the basic properties of waves.


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It is a specialized form of a wave tank. Ripples may be generated by a piece of wood that is suspended above the tank on elastic bands so that it is just touching the surface. Screwed to wood is a motor that has an off centre weight attached to the axle. As the axle rotates the motor wobbles, shaking the wood and generating ripples. A number of wave properties can be demonstrated with a ripple tank.

These include plane waves, reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction. When the rippler is attached with a point spherical ball and lowered so that it just touches the surface of the water, circular waves will be produced. When the rippler is lowered so that it just touches the surface of the water, plane waves will be produced. By placing a metal bar in the tank and tapping the wooden bar a pulse of three of four ripples can be sent towards the metal bar. The ripples reflect from the bar. If the bar is placed at an angle to the wavefront the reflected waves can be seen to obey the law of reflection.

The angle of incidence and angle of reflection will be the same. If a concave parabolic obstacle is used, a plane wave pulse will converge on a point after reflection. This point is the focal point of the mirror. Circular waves can be produced by dropping a single drop of water into the ripple tank. If this is done at the focal point of the “mirror” plane waves will be reflected back. If a sheet of glass is placed in the tank, the depth of water in the tank will be shallower over the glass than elsewhere. The speed of a wave in water depends on the depth, so the ripples slow down as they pass over the glass.

This causes the wavelength to decrease. If the junction between the deep and shallow water is at an angle to the wavefront, the waves will refract. In practice, showing refraction with a ripple tank is quite tricky to do. The sheet of glass needs to be quite thick, with the water over it as shallow as possible. This maximizes the depth difference and so causes a greater velocity difference and therefore greater angle.

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If the water is too shallow, viscous drag effects cause the ripples to disappear very quickly. The glass should have smooth edges to minimise reflections at the edge. If a small obstacle is placed in the path of the ripples, and a slow frequency is used, there is no shadow area as the ripples refract around it, as shown below on the left. A faster frequency may result in a shadow, as shown below on the right.


If a large obstacle is placed in the tank, a shadow area will probably be observed. If an obstacle with a small gap is placed in the tank the ripples emerge in an almost semicircular pattern. If the gap is large however, the diffraction is much more limited. Small, in this context, means that the size of the obstacle is comparable to the wavelength of the ripples. A phenomenon identical to the x-ray diffraction of x-rays from an atomic crystal lattice can also be seen, thus demonstrating the principles of crystallography. Interference can be produced by the use of two dippers that are attached to the main ripple bar.

In the diagrams below on the left the light areas represent crests of waves, the black areas represent troughs. Notice the grey areas: they are areas of destructive interference where the waves from the two sources cancel one another out. To the right is a photograph of two-point interference generated in a circular ripple tank. You can learn more about our cookie policy here, or by following the link at the bottom of any page on our site. USD: Prices May Rise As Net-Short Positions Jump 15.

Get the best parts of DailyFX. View More Note: Low and High figures are for the trading day. USD: The Cable Correction Continues After 1. Ripple, often known as XRP, is a digital currency created as a standard of exchange on the Ripple payment protocol.

How does the ripple coin work? Unlike Bitcoin, Ethereum and other major cryptocurrencies, Ripple is not mined. Instead there is a fixed stock of 100 billion XRP controlled by the founding company, Ripple Labs. The company in turn has publicly committed to release a maximum of 1 billion XRP monthly until all of the remaining XRP are in circulation. This fact is a matter of some controversy as it directly implies there is a central entity controlling its supply-a concept anathema to many cryptocurrency enthusiasts. What is the value of ripple today? The value of XRP gained significantly through late 2017 and early 2018, becoming at time of writing only second to Bitcoin in overall market capitalization.

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Much of this can be attributed to the impressive growth in the Ripple Network. It is ultimately reasonable to expect the valuation of XRP will largely track the adoption of the Ripple Network as a facilitator of currency transactions. Financial institutions and individuals can transact on any number of government-backed currencies and cryptocurrencies on the Ripple Network and do not need to use XRP. Yet the usage of XRP effectively eliminates counterparty risk and likewise facilitates cross-currency transactions and liquidity for other currencies. Meanwhile, Ripple is unable to buy a break.

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Payments are essential to the prosperity of the poor because they provide access to the global economy. Yet, moving money is one of the most underappreciated challenges facing financial inclusion today. Antiquated infrastructure lacks interoperability and involves multiple intermediaries to execute payments. As the payment sector contemplates new infrastructure, lessons from open infrastructure approaches, such as those adopted for the formation of the Internet, give an indication of how to remove barriers in financial services and foster innovation and growth in payments. In the early days of email, users of one email domain were not able to send messages to users of other domains. Users either went without access to people on different domains or were forced to open numerous accounts for broader reach. The lack of connectivity limited the value of email.

To resolve this issue, email providers developed an open Internet protocol called Simple Mail Transfer Protocol or SMTP. With broad adoption, SMTP grew to become the standard language that email domains use to communicate with each other. SMTP enables the seamless connectivity we enjoy today. SMTP is open, meaning it exists as a common standard and public good. It is not owned by any one party and is free to use. Through SMTP, we have seamless and instant global connectivity, enabling us to send emails across many different systems, providers, and domains for free.

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Currently, banks conduct payments through intermediaries: third parties that move funds across disconnected networks. The reliance on intermediaries adds costs, additional counterparty and settlement risk, and time delays to payments. As a result, cross-network payments only work well for certain geographies and only for high-value transactions. It is becoming clear that payment systems need to evolve to serve growing demands for low-value and cross-border payments. Recently, open protocols for payments have begun to emerge.

One example is Ripple: an open protocol that financial institutions and payment networks can implement for settlement. This allows financial services companies to make payments directly to each other, whether across different networks, geographic borders or currencies. In essence, Ripple does for payments what SMTP did for email, which is enable the systems of different financial institutions to communicate directly. Global connectivity via Ripple eliminates the reliance on third parties, minimizing or eliminating many of the risks, delays and costs that have been a reality in payments for many decades.

This enables each network’s existing rules, processes, and messaging standards to remain in place. The adoption of open protocols in payments would bridge today’s highly fragmented systems. For customers, this would introduce the ability to seamlessly send money from one account to another, across networks, institutions, and geographic borders. Critically, these transactions could take place in near real-time, and in theory, could be cost-effective even for low-value payments. Advancements in payment infrastructure have the potential to spur rapid and fundamental innovation throughout the entire financial ecosystem.


With this technology, mobile money operators, banks, payments companies and governments are better equipped to create payment products that will have a profound impact on financial inclusion for the world’s poorest. Affordable, low-value, cross-border payments and greater transparency in markets previously not economical to serve are early indicators of how new technologies can be applied. In addition to allowing poor customers to become a profitable market segment, open protocols and distributed architectures can enable entirely new and novel offerings. Just as the world witnessed with the evolution of mobile money, emerging markets can lead these developments. They are creating a global interoperable network that connects MTOs, MNOs, banks, and cash agents via one connection to the hub API. The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.

This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. A Trip Around the Corner: Financial Inclusion in the U. Is M-PESA Replacing Cash in Kenya? Can Retailers and MNOs Provide More Efficient Financial Services?

Here at CGAP we love to draw global lessons about financial inclusion from our interaction with stakeholders in various countries. Women’s Financial Inclusion: Are Funders Moving the Needle? Bank-Led Digital Finance: Who’s Really Leading? Blockchain: A Solution in Search of a Problem? Get your basic questions about financial inclusion and microfinance answered. Check out the new Mara Kimono today! Helping Crocheters Find Free Crochet Patterns Quickly.