Word of the Year Our Word of the Year choice serves as a symbol of each year’s most meaningful events question: (a) Design a 4-bit count-down binary ripple counter using D flip flops. Draw the logic diagram an… lookup trends. It is an opportunity for us to reflect on the language and ideas that represented each year.
So, take a stroll down memory lane to remember all of our past Word of the Year selections. Change It wasn’t trendy, funny, nor was it coined on Twitter, but we thought change told a real story about how our users defined 2010. The national debate can arguably be summarized by the question: In the past two years, has there been enough change? Meanwhile, many Americans continue to face change in their homes, bank accounts and jobs. Only time will tell if the latest wave of change Americans voted for in the midterm elections will result in a negative or positive outcome. Tergiversate This rare word was chosen to represent 2011 because it described so much of the world around us.
Tergiversate means “to change repeatedly one’s attitude or opinions with respect to a cause, subject, etc. Bluster In a year known for the Occupy movement and what became known as the Arab Spring, our lexicographers chose bluster as their Word of the Year for 2012. 2012 saw the most expensive political campaigns and some of the most extreme weather events in human history, from floods in Australia to cyclones in China to Hurricane Sandy and many others. Privacy We got serious in 2013.
Privacy was on everyone’s mind that year, from Edward Snowden’s reveal of Project PRISM to the arrival of Google Glass. Exposure Spoiler alert: Things don’t get less serious in 2014. Our Word of the Year was exposure, which highlighted the year’s Ebola virus outbreak, shocking acts of violence both abroad and in the US, and widespread theft of personal information. From the pervading sense of vulnerability surrounding Ebola to the visibility into acts of crime or misconduct that ignited critical conversations about race, gender, and violence, various senses of exposure were out in the open this year.
Identity Fluidity of identity was a huge theme in 2015. Language around gender and sexual identity broadened, becoming more inclusive with additions to the dictionary like gender-fluid as well as the gender-neutral prefix Mx. Xenophobia In 2016, we selected xenophobia as our Word of the Year. Fear of the “other” was a huge theme in 2016, from Brexit to President Donald Trump’s campaign rhetoric. Despite being chosen as the 2016 Word of the Year, xenophobia is not to be celebrated. Rather it’s a word to reflect upon deeply in light of the events of the recent past. Complicit The word complicit sprung up in conversations in 2017 about those who spoke out against powerful figures and institutions and about those who stayed silent.
It was a year of real awakening to complicity in various sectors of society, from politics to pop culture. Our choice for Word of the Year is as much about what is visible as it is about what is not. It’s a word that reminds us that even inaction is a type of action. The silent acceptance of wrongdoing is how we’ve gotten to this point. We must not let this continue to be the norm.
If we do, then we are all complicit. The Roman Numeral Bowl: Are You Ready For Some Football? Where Do Our Favorite Emoji Come From? Start your day with weird words, fun quizzes, and language stories. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe contains the logic required to handle Ajax powered Gravity Forms.
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But if you are like me, blinking a virtual LED just isn’t as exciting as making a real one glow. However, for the first two examples I cover you don’t need any hardware beyond your computer. If you want to get ready, you can order an iCEstick and maybe it’ll arrive before Part III of this series if published. I’m not going to directly try to teach Verilog.
However, I will point out a few key areas that trip up new FPGA designers and by following the example code, you’ll be up to speed in no time. I just won’t be talking about how to do that. For the FPGA tools used in Part III, I’m using the open source Icestorm tools. I tried using the Lattice tools and it was heartbreakingly difficult to get them installed and licensed. I’ll have more to say about that in part III. We aren’t going to start with a CPU, though.
We’ll start with something much more simple. Let’s Build an Adder There are two main kinds of circuits you build on any FPGA: combinatorial and sequential. The difference is simple: combinatorial logic is all logic gates. The past state of the circuit doesn’t matter. Given a certain set of inputs, the outputs will be the same. I wanted to show examples of both and how you map them to the board.
Verilog Versus Schematic Entry For simple circuits, it is tempting to just draw a schematic like the one above and either machine translate that to the FPGA or hand translate it to Verilog. Some tools support this and you may think that’s the way to go. I know I did when I got started. The truth is, through, that after you move away from simple things, the schematics can be very painful.
For example, think of a seven segment decoder. But it would take a few minutes. If you use Verilog, you can take a simple approach and just write out the gates you want. That will work, but it is usually not the right answer. Instead, you should describe the circuit behavior you want and the Verilog compiler will infer what circuits it takes to create what you need. The always statement tells Verilog that the code following should execute whenever any of the inputs you use in it change. This infers a combinatorial circuit since there is no clock.
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You could also use an equal sign here to create a blocking assignment. For now, the difference doesn’t matter, but we’ll revisit that topic when working with a sequential design. From this description of what you want, the Verilog compiler will infer the right gates and may even be able to perform some optimizations. A key difference between an FPGA and building things on a microcontroller has to do with parallelism. If you wrote similar C code on, say, an Arduino, every copy of it would take some execution time.
If you had, for example, 50 decoders, the CPU would have to service each one in turn. With an FPGA, the circuitry that drives each display just works all the time. It isn’t because the FPGA is executing lines of Verilog code or some equivalent structure. There is an exception to this. During simulation, Verilog does act like a programming language, but it has very specific rules for keeping the timing the same as it will be on the FPGA.
However, it also allows you to write constructs that would not be transferable to the FPGA. For example, a subroutine call doesn’t make sense in hardware, but you can do it during simulation. Look back at the adder schematic. The sum is a simple XOR gate and the carry is an AND gate.
It is smarter, though, to let Verilog figure that out. The braces turn the one bit wires inA and inB into two bit quantities. In this simple example, I might have actually stuck to the first method, but if you think back on the 7 segment decoder, you’ll see it makes sense to use this inferring style where possible. Modules and Definitions When you watch the video below or browse the code, you’ll notice there’s a few minor things I glossed over. For one, all of this code lives in a module. Other modules can create copies of a module and map different signals to its inputs and outputs.
I wanted to use more meaningful names like inB. A Test Bench Makes The Simulation Possible Before you commit your design to an FPGA, you’ll probably want to simulate it. Debugging is much easier during simulation because you can examine everything. When the Verilog simulator runs, it follows rules about timing that take into account how everything runs at the same time, so the behavior should be exactly what your FPGA will do. This kind of timing violation is a real problem with large chips and high speeds.
For this sort of small circuit, it shouldn’t be an issue. For now, we can assume if the simulation works, the FPGA should behave in the same way. The code will never synthesize, so we can use strange Verilog features that we don’t normally use in our regular code. Note that there is a reg for each input we want to feed the device under test and a wire for each output it will drive. That means all of those reg variables need to be set up to our test conditions. Verilog provides an initial block that is usually not valid for synthesis, but will be the main part of most test benches.
We’ll be able to examine anything that gets dumped. I didn’t do that in this test. The next thing you need is some test case stimulus. In the case of the counters, you don’t need anything other than the clock. Without this, the clock generator will cause the simulation to keep going forever. If you want to know more about how it works, check out the video below and I’ll walk through it step by step.
Using clocks are an important part of making practical digital designs, as you’ll soon see. I’ll also have a few more Verilog key points. You can also read the next post in this series. Learning Verilog for FPGAs: Hardware at Last!