Misbehavior in Bitcoin: A Study of Double-Spending and Accountability

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Can People with Borderline Personality Disorder Change? Enter the terms you wish to search for. Thinking Outside the Box: A Misguided Idea The truth behind the universal, but flawed, catchphrase for creativity. Although studying creativity is considered a legitimate scientific discipline nowadays, it is still a very young one. If you have tried solving this puzzle, you can confirm that your first attempts usually involve sketching lines inside the imaginary square. The correct solution, however, requires you to draw lines that extend beyond the area defined by the dots. The symmetry, the beautiful simplicity of the solution, and the fact that 80 percent of the participants were effectively blinded by the boundaries of the square led Guilford and the readers of his books to leap to the sweeping conclusion that creativity requires you to go outside the box.

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Overnight, it seemed that creativity gurus everywhere were teaching managers how to think outside the box. Management consultants in the 1970s and 1980s even used this puzzle when making sales pitches to prospective clients. Because the solution is, in hindsight, deceptively simple, clients tended to admit they should have thought of it themselves. There seemed to be no end to the insights that could be offered under the banner of thinking outside the box. Indeed, the concept enjoyed such strong popularity and intuitive appeal that no one bothered to check the facts.

No one, that is, before two different research teams—Clarke Burnham with Kenneth Davis, and Joseph Alba with Robert Weisberg—ran another experiment using the same puzzle but a different research procedure. Both teams followed the same protocol of dividing participants into two groups. The first group was given the same instructions as the participants in Guilford’s experiment. The second group was told that the solution required the lines to be drawn outside the imaginary box bordering the dot array.

Would you like to guess the percentage of the participants in the second group who solved the puzzle correctly? What’s more, in statistical terms, this 5 percent improvement over the subjects of Guilford’s original study is insignificant. Let’s look a little more closely at these surprising results. Solving this problem requires people to literally think outside the box. Yet participants’ performance was not improved even when they were given specific instructions to do so. That is, direct and explicit instructions to think outside the box did not help. That this advice is useless when actually trying to solve a problem involving a real box should effectively have killed off the much widely disseminated—and therefore, much more dangerous—metaphor that out-of-the-box thinking spurs creativity.

After all, with one simple yet brilliant experiment, researchers had proven that the conceptual link between thinking outside the box and creativity was a myth. Of course, in real life you won’t find boxes. But you will find numerous situations where a creative breakthrough is staring you in the face. They are much more common than you probably think. There are many theories of creativity. What the latest experiment proves is not that creativity lacks any association to thinking outside-the-box, but that such is not conditioned by acquired knowledge, i. These improvements current lots of substantial options but also pose main troubles.

A person of the most considerable outcomes of the progress of info technologies is most likely electronic commerce above the Internet, a new way of conducting organization. It indicates the seamless application of data and conversation technology along the entire benefit chain of a company that is done electronically. India or other nations where the wages are a great deal lower. D, and distribution teams in shut speak to with the producing teams. The technologies permits different sorts of work and employment to be decoupled from one another. Desktops and interaction systems also promote additional current market-like kinds of generation and distribution.

Removing of intermediaries would minimize the charges in the production and distribution worth chain. Nonphysical merchandise, this sort of as computer software, can be delivered electronically, doing away with the whole transportation channel. Payments can be performed in new ways. I conduct soft skills training and outbound training for Corporates and individuals . To enhance creativity we motivate the participants to approach the problems from variety of vantage points .

Even repeatedly checking the boundary conditions we are able to come up with variety of ways of solving the problem . This is akin to checking the walls of the box . With all due respect, Professor Boyd, your argument is not at all compelling. To refer to TOTB as “dangerous” is naive, at best. I, personally, have seen the positive, tranformative effects of not only the 9-dots exercise, but also the occasional use of the term to remind individuals after-the-fact about the value of thinking differently. The experiment you refer to doesn’t even come close to proving what you suggest that it does. To use the term “proving” in an argument like this is laughable.

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In real life, you absolutely WILL find boxesthat is, if you understand what the term “box” refers to. It is precisely how the human mind works. We all think in boxes all the time. A different — and very healthy, positive, and productive — way to think about TOTB is to understand that it merely represents an insight that can remind an individual to consciously become aware of limiting assumptions. And, upon such awareness, to open ones mind and imagination to actively explore new possibilities beyond the obvious or initial answer. I couldn’t have said it any better TOTB is a beautiful skill to have. I’m all about TOTB and the best way to TOTB is to fully understand the box in the first place and why some people are scared of TOTB hence also lacking the ability to do so.

I think much of which is vaguely labeled “creative thinking” is actually the result of healthy skepticism. We should make a habit of challenging conventional wisdom and the way things have always been done. On encountering the conventional approach, our attitude should be doubtful: “Well, that might be right, but I will have to think about it. Fold the paper so all the dots ovelap. Use four lines to connect four dots. Hold the folded paper up to the light. I play chess with my pc, an beat it all the time, and the reasoning is I do not think logically, like the pc does .

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I do not play by the rules, I can play without the queen. If was going to tell you about an airplane the TR-3B, it travels a little bit under light speed, an it uses nuclear fusion, which turns into plasma an powers the craft, that was built outside the box. You my brother, do not have the inkling of understanding to think outside the box. Japanese traders have found that candlesticks form interesting patterns in the seeming market chaos. These candlestick patterns are LEADING indicators and they can be used to make a profit if used correctly and effectively. The “Forex Candlestick Tactics” ebook reveals powerful methods to trade candlestick patterns combined with standard technical indicators. Should We Use Technology to Make Us More Creative?

Structured tools boost, not limit, our creative output. New research suggests we have a tendency to look like our names. 2017 New Year’s Resolution: Be More Creative Taking the time to learn creativity is worth it! Business: What is the Stock Market Thinking? Creative Thinking Outside the Box: better if it’s leaky! This article is about the type of service.

Misbehavior in Bitcoin: A Study of Double-Spending and Accountability

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For the social science theoretical concept of relationships between people, see Social network. For a list of services, see List of social networking websites. They can incorporate a range of new information and communication tools, operating on desktops and on laptops, on mobile devices such as tablet computers and smartphones. A study reveals that India recorded world’s largest growth in terms of social media users in 2013. You can help by adding to it. The variety and evolving range of stand-alone and built-in social networking services in the online space introduces a challenge of definition.

Furthermore, the idea that these services are defined by their ability to bring people together provides too broad a definition. Huge number of ties technologically possible, but average number is limited, e. The potential for computer networking to facilitate newly improved forms of computer-mediated social interaction was suggested early on. Early social networking on the World Wide Web began in the form of generalized online communities such as Theglobe. In the late 1990s, user profiles became a central feature of social networking sites, allowing users to compile lists of “friends” and search for other users with similar interests. New social networking methods were developed by the end of the 1990s, and many sites began to develop more advanced features for users to find and manage friends. Web-based social networking services make it possible to connect people who share interests and activities across political, economic, and geographic borders.

Facebook and other social networking tools are increasingly the aim of scholarly research. 18 to 34 use social networking sites for their purchase decision making. 55 and over rely on word of mouth. Several websites are beginning to tap into the power of the social networking model for philanthropy. Research has provided us with mixed results as to whether or not a person’s involvement in social networking can affect their feelings of loneliness.

Studies have indicated that how a person chooses to use social networking can change their feelings of loneliness in either a negative or positive way. According to a recent article from Computers in Human Behavior, Facebook has also been shown to lead to issues of social comparison. Users are able to select which photos and status updates to post, allowing them to portray their lives in acclamatory manners. These updates can lead to other users feeling like their lives are inferior by comparison. The things you share are things that make you look good, things which you are happy to tie into your identity. While the popularity of social networking consistently rises, new uses for the technology are frequently being observed. Today’s technologically savvy population requires convenient solutions to their daily needs.

Companies have begun to merge business technologies and solutions, such as cloud computing, with social networking concepts. Instead of connecting individuals based on social interest, companies are developing interactive communities that connect individuals based on shared business needs or experiences. Foursquare gained popularity as it allowed for users to check into places that they are frequenting at that moment. Gowalla is another such service that functions in much the same way that Foursquare does, leveraging the GPS in phones to create a location-based user experience.

One popular use for this new technology is social networking between businesses. Companies have found that social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are great ways to build their brand image. In 2012, it was reported that in the past few years, the niche social network has steadily grown in popularity, thanks to better levels of user interaction and engagement. One other use that is being discussed is the use of social networks in the science communities. The European Southern Observatory uses social networks to engage people in astronomical observations.

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Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants has been considered a relatively accurate representation of the ease with which people of a certain age range—in particular those born before and after 1980—use technology. Facebook as a CMS has the potential to increase student involvement in discussions and out-of-class communication among instructors and students. Professional use of social networking services refers to the employment of a network site to connect with other professionals within a given field of interest. According to Doering, Beach and O’Brien, a future English curriculum needs to recognize a major shift in how adolescents are communicating with each other. Curriculum uses of social networking services also can include sharing curriculum-related resources. Educators tap into user-generated content to find and discuss curriculum-related content for students.

Misbehavior in Bitcoin: A Study of Double-Spending and Accountability

Educators and advocates of new digital literacies are confident that social networking encourages the development of transferable, technical, and social skills of value in formal and informal learning. In a formal learning environment, goals or objectives are determined by an outside department or agency. In the past, social networking services were viewed as a distraction and offered no educational benefit. Blocking these social networks was a form of protection for students against wasting time, bullying, and invasions of privacy. In an educational setting, Facebook, for example, is seen by many instructors and educators as a frivolous, time-wasting distraction from schoolwork, and it is not uncommon to be banned in junior high or high school computer labs. A cyberpsychology research study conducted by Australian researchers demonstrated that a number of positive psychological outcomes are related to Facebook use. These researchers established that people can derive a sense of social connectedness and belongingness in the online environment.

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Social networks are being used by activists as a means of low-cost grassroots organizing. A rise in social network use is being driven by college students using the services to network with professionals for internship and job opportunities. Many studies have been done on the effectiveness of networking online in a college setting, and one notable one is by Phipps Arabie and Yoram Wind published in Advances in Social Network Analysis. In addition, employers have been found to use social network sites to screen job candidates. A social network hosting service is a web hosting service that specifically hosts the user creation of web-based social networking services, alongside related applications.

A social trade network is a service that allows traders of financial derivatives such as contracts for difference or foreign exchange contracts to share their trading activity via trading profiles online. There services are created by financial brokers. Few social networks charge money for membership. In part, this may be because social networking is a relatively new service, and the value of using them has not been firmly established in customers’ minds. Companies such as Myspace and Facebook sell online advertising on their site. People use social networking sites for meeting new friends, finding old friends, or locating people who have the same problems or interests they have, called niche networking.

More and more relationships and friendships are being formed online and then carried to an offline setting. Psychologist and University of Hamburg professor Erich H. Witte says that relationships which start online are much more likely to succeed. Spamming on online social networks is quite prevalent. A primary motivation to spam arises from the fact that a user advertising a brand would like others to see them and they typically publicize their brand over the social network. Detecting such spamming activity has been well studied by developing a semi-automated model to detect spams. Privacy concerns with social networking services have been raised growing concerns among users on the dangers of giving out too much personal information and the threat of sexual predators.

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In medical and scientific research, asking subjects for information about their behaviors is normally strictly scrutinized by institutional review boards, for example, to ensure that adolescents and their parents have informed consent. It is not clear whether the same rules apply to researchers who collect data from social networking sites. Privacy on social networking sites can be undermined by many factors. For example, users may disclose personal information, sites may not take adequate steps to protect user privacy, and third parties frequently use information posted on social networks for a variety of purposes.

For the Net generation, social networking sites have become the preferred forum for social interactions, from posturing and role playing to simply sounding off. Another debate lies in the design of algorithmicsystems to target specific audiences on social networking sites. With multiple formats for marketing, Facebook offers a variety of direct marketing options for advertisers to reach their intended audience. The debate questions to what extent the design of these systems is compromising the needs, privacy and information of the users. More research is needed to evaluate if allowing advertising to access user information to specifically tailor content to their choices and interactions, for example by placing ads within their personal feeds and throughout their use of the site, is compromising the user’s information and social wellbeing. Through data mining, companies are able to improve their sales and profitability.

With this data, companies create customer profiles that contain customer demographics and online behavior. A recent strategy has been the purchase and production of “network analysis software”. There has been a trend for social networking sites to send out only “positive” notifications to users. Likewise, Bebo will send out a notification if a user is moved to the top of another user’s friends list but no notification is sent if they are moved down the list.

Many social networking services, such as Facebook, provide the user with a choice of who can view their profile. This is supposed to prevent unauthorized users from accessing their information. There are works which recommend friends to social networking users based on their political opinions. Not only have employees lost their jobs in the United States, but it has happened with social network users internationally. In April 2011, a Lloyd’s banking group employee in the United Kingdom was fired for making a sarcastic post about the higher salary of her boss in relation to hers. Cases like these have created some privacy implications as to whether or not companies should have the right to look at employees’ social network profiles.

In March 2012, Facebook decided they might take legal action against employers for gaining access to employee’s profiles through their passwords. The relative freedom afforded by social networking services has caused concern regarding the potential of its misuse by individual patrons. At the same time, genuine use of social networking services has been treated with suspicion on the ground of the services’ misuse. In September 2008, the profile of Australian Facebook user Elmo Keep was banned by the site’s administrators on the grounds that it violated the site’s terms of use. Online social networks have also become a platform for spread of rumors, one such study has analyzed rumors in retrospect. There are different forms where user data in social networks are accessed and updated without a user’s permission.

Citizens and governments have been concerned with misuse of social networking services by children and teenagers, in particular in relation to online sexual predators. One instance in South Korea resulted in the death of a child from starvation. Law enforcement agencies have published articles with their recommendations to parents about their children’s use of social networking sites. Social networking sites such as Facebook are occasionally used to emotionally abuse, harass or bully individuals, either by posting defamatory statements or by forwarding private digital photos or videos that can have an adverse impact on the individuals depicted in the videos. Such actions are often referred to as “trolling”. Trolling is a prominent issue in the 2010s, and as the Internet and social media is consistently expanding and more individuals sign up to social networking sites, more people come under fire and become the target of trolls.

As more people sign up to social networking sites, more celebrities are also becoming more prominent on these sites. With a variety of celebrities joining social networking sites, trolls tend to target abuse towards them. While trolls believe that they do not face consequences and can troll others on the Internet without repercussions, in the 2000s, due to high-profile cases where cyberbullies have allegedly been factors in suicides attributed to bullying, more laws have been put in place by governments. Online bullying, also called cyberbullying, is a relatively common occurrence and it can often result in emotional trauma for the victim. Interpersonal communication has been a growing issue as more and more people have turned to social networking as a means of communication. Further, social networking sites have become popular sites for youth culture to explore themselves, relationships, and share cultural artifacts”.

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The convenience that social network sites give users to communicate with one another can also damage their interpersonal communication. Sherry Turkle, the founder and director of the MIT Initiative on Technology and Self, stated, “Networked, we are together, but so lessened are our expectations of each other that we feel utterly alone. And there is the risk that we come to see others as objects to be accessed–and only for the parts we find useful, comforting, or amusing”. As social networking sites have risen in popularity over the past years, people have been spending an excessive amount of time on the Internet in general and social networking sites in specific.

This has led researchers to debate the establishment of Internet addiction as an actual clinical disorder. Social networking can also affect the extent to which a person feels lonely. There has been rapid growth in the number of U. The number of published applications has been growing rapidly since 2003.

There are now over 3,500 published applications. As many as 7,000 applications may be currently on file including those that haven’t been published yet. It has been reported that social networking patents are important for the establishment of new start-up companies. It has also been reported, however, that social networking patents inhibit innovation. A networked computer system provides various services for assisting users in locating, and establishing contact relationships with, other users. For example, in one embodiment, users can identify other users based on their affiliations with particular schools or other organizations.

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The patent has garnered attention due to its similarity to the popular social networking site Facebook. Most of the existing SNS sites use one or multiple dedicated data centers to serve all its users. Such infrastructure-based systems faces over-provisioning during non-peak hours, while may encounter service outage during peak hours, due to the highly dynamic of SNS users’ activities. There are several proposals, leveraging a decentralized architecture to ensure the scalability of SNS sites with low infrastructure cost.