Message Authentication: Unlocking the Secrets of the Java Cryptography Extensions

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Selecting the Design Method

The reality is that there are a number of subjects in information security which many people who are otherwise quite competent professionals in the field are confused by. To try to alleviate this problem, I anonymously polled hundreds of infosec students and professionals about what topics they’re still having trouble wrapping their heads around. Since information security has many areas of specialty, I’ve stepped aside today and asked people specifically working in each niche to tackle breaking down these topics. Where possible, I have provided two perspectives from people with different experiences with the subject matter. Each of these contributors was tremendously generous with his or her time and knowledge. Please visit their social media profiles and personal blogs!

This is a pretty tough topic, so let’s start with an easy one. Yikes, ask the easy ones first, eh? My biggest life achievement is being part of a group which got a multi-billion dollar MS client pissed off enough to call MS to the carpet and eventually MS wrote a whitepaper. Caveat:  This is a very technical question and in order to answer it in an easy to understand manner, I have to provide some background and gloss over a lot of very pertinent details. Ok, while I can assume people have solid IT fundamentals, I need to define a Computer Science fundamental, namely the concept of a stack. This is relevant because stacks are used extensively as the means for an operating system to handle programs and their associated memory spaces.

This allows the subroutine to execute and do whatever it needs to do, and if further subroutines occur, the same thing happens. When the subroutine is finished, the stack gets popped and the previous execution flow gets restored. Given the generally linear nature of how the stacks were handled, once you found a buffer overflow, exploiting it to make bad stuff happen was fairly straightforward. When a process executes, it is generally given virtual memory space all to itself to work with. So the idea was, rather than try to have all the process stack be clumped together, what if we just spread it out somewhat randomly throughout the virtual memory space? So it might be possible to jump into code at a well known location and then leverage that to further exploit.

Information leakage is the final issue that commonly arises. What would you tell somebody in infosec who’s having trouble grasping how ASLR works and how it is bypassed? What other things could they study up on first to grasp it better? Honestly, unless you are an exploit developer, an application developer, or into operating systems memory design, a gist should be all you need to know.

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If you are a developer, there’s usually a compiler option somewhere which you’d need to enable to make sure that your program is covered. It is also worth noting that generally 64-bit programs have better ASLR because they can have more randomness in their address space. What about somebody who has a solid grasp on the basics and wants to delve deeper? Are there any open source projects that could benefit from their help? My name is Mohamed, I’m a software engineer who has a lot of passion towards security.

ASLR bypasses are common in security news, but a lot of infosec folks don’t fully understand what ASLR does, and why bypassing it is a goal for attackers. Its first implementation was over a decade and it became a stable in modern operating systems. Executables are expected to be position-independent. I control EIP, where do I go next?

Before we discuss the common bypassing techniques, it’s important to stress on that bypassing ASLR doesn’t directly enable code execution or pose a risk by itself as this is only a part of the exploit chain and you still need to trigger a vulnerability that results in code execution. Yet, finding an ASLR bypass mean that broken exploits can utilize that bypass again. Abusing non-ASLR modules: The presence of a single non-ASLR module means an attacker has a reliable place to jump to. Nowadays, this is becoming less common.

Partial overwrite: Instead of overwriting EIP, overwrite the lower bytes only. This way you don’t have to deal with the higher bytes affected by ASLR. Brute-forcing: Keep trying out different addresses. Implementation flaws: Weak entropy, unexpected regression, logical mistakes or others.

Lots of great research on this topic. In real world, attackers will need to bypass more than just ASLR. What are two or three essential concepts for us to grasp about ASLR and the various bypass techniques available? Bypassing ASLR doesn’t mean attackers can execute code. You still need an actual vulnerability that allows hijacking the execution flow.

Fire up a debugger and check the process layout of various segments. Research past ASLR vulnerabilities and how they were used to bypass it and recreate them if possible. Understand the implementation differences for ASLR in Windows and Linux. This list is in no way comprehensive but serves as a good start. Solve exploitation challenges from CTFs, recreate public exploits that rely on bypassing ASLR. Would you mind telling us a little about your background, and your expertise with blockchain technology? I spent the last year working for Chain.

I recently left to pursue other interests. Would you please give us a 500-words-or-less explanation of what a blockchain is, and why the technology is important to us as security professionals? Bitcoin in particular uses a proof-of-work function to implement a sort of by-lottery distributed leader election algorithm. It appears to be a term originally used by Hal Finney prior to Bitcoin which Satoshi adopted from Hal. What are a couple really critical concepts we should understand with regards to how blockchain technology functions?

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Bitcoin involves two programs: an input program which has locked funds which will only unlock them if the authorization program’s requirements are met, and an output program which specifies how funds should be locked after being unlocked. Bitcoin transaction involves unlocking and re-locking of stored value using authorization programs. UTXOs once created are immutable and can only move from an unspent to spent state, at which point they are removed from the set. This makes the Bitcoin blockchain a sort of immutable functional data structure, which is a clean and reliable programming model. Ethereum has experimented in abandoning this nice clean side effect-free programming model for one which is mutable and stateful.

Ethereum system losing the equivalent of hundreds of millions of dollars worth of value. What would you tell somebody in infosec who’s struggling to conceptualize how a blockchain works? What other things could they study up on to grasp it better? There are other systems which are a bit more straightforward which share some of the same design goals as Bitcoin, but with a much narrower focus, a more well-defined threat model, and both a cleaner and more rigorous cryptographic design. Let’s start with the easy one. Would you please tell us a little about your background, and your expertise with blockchain technology?

Unix Senior Software Developer with a CISSP, who has worked with encryption and payment technologies throughout my career. There are many blockchains, with varying implementations and design goals, but at their core, they all provide for continuity and integrity of an ever-growing ledger of transactions. In this case means that the network integrity as a whole is only secured by substantial ongoing compute power in a proof-of-work blockchain. Without that, you lose the core assurance the technology is trying to provide.

At time Z, wallet number X paid wallet number Y the sum of N bitcoins. Imagine many of these messages being dumped on a common message bus worldwide. Checking the hash of a block is trivial, but finding the right nonce to create a valid hash takes time inversely proportional to the miner’s computing power. Once the chain has a sufficiently large number of blocks, each chaining back to the previous block, it becomes impractical to refute, change, or delete any records deep enough in the chain, without re-doing all the computational work which follows.

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The weight of all future computations to find nonces for future blocks collectively secure the integrity of all the previous records in the chain. As mentioned above, proof-of-work blockchains need a lot of compute power to secure them. Bitcoin is a fascinating social hack, in that by making the transactions about a new currency, the algorithm was designed to incentivize participants to donate compute power to secure the network in return for being paid fees in the new currency. A block is just a set of entries, and the next block is chained back to the previous block via inclusion of the previous block’s hash. The hash on each individual block is the integrity check for that block, and by including it in the next block, you get an inheritance of integrity. A change in any earlier block would be detected by the mismatched hash, and replacing it with a new hash would invalidate all the later blocks. Everyone in the security field does not need to understand blockchain to any deep level.

You should have a basic understanding, like I’ve sketched out above, to understand if blockchain makes sense for your given use case. Again, using the more famous Bitcoin blockchain as an example, I’d strongly recommend everyone read the original 2008 Satoshi white paper initially describing Bitcoin. It’s only eight pages, light on math, and very readable. Blockchain startups, projects, and new cryptocurrencies are all hot. The challenge really is to narrow down your interest. What do you want to do with blockchain technology?

That should guide your next steps. In my opinion, blockchain technologies really are a tool searching for the right problem. An alt-currency was an interesting first experiment, which may or may not stand the test of time. Ethereum has a 45 billion dollar market cap, second only to Bitcoin right now. The distributed, immutable ledger a blockchain provides feels like it is an important new thing to me for our industry. Maybe one of you will figure out what it’s really good for. Could you please tell us a little about yourself, and a bit about your work with DNSSEC?

DNSSEC standards and the DNS-OARC organization. DNSSEC SME for Comcast, one of the largest users of DNSSEC signing and validation. Would you please give us a brief explanation of what DNSSEC is, and why it’s important? IP address or other information a computer or phone needs to connect a user to the desired service. DNSSEC is a technology that lets the owner of a domain, such as example.

If the user then uses a DNS resolver that does DNSSEC validation, the resolver can verify that the DNS answer it passes to the end user really is exactly what the domain owner signed, i. That validation means that the user will know that this answer is correct, or that someone has modified the answer and that it shouldn’t be trusted. What are a couple really critical concepts we should understand with regards to how DNSSEC functions? DNSSEC means that a 3rd party can’t modify DNS answers without it being detected. DNS resolver that is doing DNSSSEC validation. What would you tell somebody in infosec who’s struggling to conceptualize how DNSSEC works? DNSSEC is end to end data integrity only.

It does raise the bar on how hard it is to hijack the DNS zone, modify data in that zone or modify the answer in transit. But it just means you know you got whatever the zone owner put into the zone and signed. This is data integrity, not encryption. DNS query and response, who asked and who answered. It doesn’t guarantee delivery of the answer. If the zone data is DNSSEC signed and the user uses a DNSSEC validating resolver and the data doesn’t validate,the user gets no answer to the DNS query at all, making this a potential denial of service attack. Tarah Wheeler, principal security researcher at Red Queen Technologies, New America Cybersecurity Policy Fellow, author Women In Tech.

Why don’t we start off with you telling us a little about your background, and your expertise with PKI. My tech journey started in academia, where I spent my time writing math in Java. As I transitioned more and more to tech, I ended up as the de facto PKI manager for several projects. I handled certificate management while I was at Microsoft Game Studios working on Lips for Xbox and Halo for Xbox, and debugged the cert management process internally for two teams I worked on. PKI or public key infrastructure is about how two entities learn to trust each other in order to exchange messages securely. PKI is a more complex system that understands lots of different networks which may or may not share a common trust authority. There are five parts of certificate or web PKI.

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Yeah, I know I said that two entities can trust each other without a common authority, but humans aren’t good at that kind of trust without someone vouching for them. Registration authorities have what is essentially a license to issue certificates based on being trusted by the CA, and dependent upon their ability to validate organizational identity in a trustworthy way. Certificate authorities may perform their own registration, or they might outsource it. CAs issue certificates, and RAs verify the information provided in those certificates. Certificate databases store requests for certificates as opposed to the certificates themselves. Certificate stores hold the actual certificates.

I wasn’t in charge of naming these bloody things or I’d have switched this one with certificate databases because it’s not intuitive. This is optional and not used by all CAs. Keys work like this: a pair of keys is generated from some kind of cryptographic algorithm. The two major uses for PKI are for email and web traffic. On a very high level, remember that traffic over the Internet is just a series of packets—little chunks of bits and bytes.

While we think of email messages and web requests as philosophically distinct, at the heart, they’re just packets with different port addresses. We define the difference between messages and web requests arbitrarily, but the bits and bytes are transmitted in an identical fashion. PGP is the first commonly used form of email encryption. Most of the time, when we’re talking about PKI in a policy sense or in industry, this is what we mean. Authentication is making sure they’re allowed to do what they say they’re allowed to do.