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Can People with Borderline Personality Disorder Change? Enter the terms you wish to search for. Thinking Outside the Box: A Misguided Idea The truth behind the universal, but flawed, catchphrase for creativity. Although studying creativity is considered a legitimate scientific discipline nowadays, it is still a very young one. If you have tried solving this puzzle, you can confirm that your first attempts usually involve sketching lines inside the imaginary square. The correct solution, however, requires you to draw lines that extend beyond the area defined by the dots.
The symmetry, the beautiful simplicity of the solution, and the fact that 80 percent of the participants were effectively blinded by the boundaries of the square led Guilford and the readers of his books to leap to the sweeping conclusion that creativity requires you to go outside the box. Overnight, it seemed that creativity gurus everywhere were teaching managers how to think outside the box. Management consultants in the 1970s and 1980s even used this puzzle when making sales pitches to prospective clients. Because the solution is, in hindsight, deceptively simple, clients tended to admit they should have thought of it themselves.
There seemed to be no end to the insights that could be offered under the banner of thinking outside the box. Indeed, the concept enjoyed such strong popularity and intuitive appeal that no one bothered to check the facts. No one, that is, before two different research teams—Clarke Burnham with Kenneth Davis, and Joseph Alba with Robert Weisberg—ran another experiment using the same puzzle but a different research procedure. Both teams followed the same protocol of dividing participants into two groups. The first group was given the same instructions as the participants in Guilford’s experiment. The second group was told that the solution required the lines to be drawn outside the imaginary box bordering the dot array. Would you like to guess the percentage of the participants in the second group who solved the puzzle correctly?
What’s more, in statistical terms, this 5 percent improvement over the subjects of Guilford’s original study is insignificant. Let’s look a little more closely at these surprising results. Solving this problem requires people to literally think outside the box. Yet participants’ performance was not improved even when they were given specific instructions to do so. That is, direct and explicit instructions to think outside the box did not help.
That this advice is useless when actually trying to solve a problem involving a real box should effectively have killed off the much widely disseminated—and therefore, much more dangerous—metaphor that out-of-the-box thinking spurs creativity. After all, with one simple yet brilliant experiment, researchers had proven that the conceptual link between thinking outside the box and creativity was a myth. Of course, in real life you won’t find boxes. But you will find numerous situations where a creative breakthrough is staring you in the face. They are much more common than you probably think. There are many theories of creativity.
What the latest experiment proves is not that creativity lacks any association to thinking outside-the-box, but that such is not conditioned by acquired knowledge, i. These improvements current lots of substantial options but also pose main troubles. A person of the most considerable outcomes of the progress of info technologies is most likely electronic commerce above the Internet, a new way of conducting organization. It indicates the seamless application of data and conversation technology along the entire benefit chain of a company that is done electronically. India or other nations where the wages are a great deal lower. D, and distribution teams in shut speak to with the producing teams. The technologies permits different sorts of work and employment to be decoupled from one another.
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Desktops and interaction systems also promote additional current market-like kinds of generation and distribution. Removing of intermediaries would minimize the charges in the production and distribution worth chain. Nonphysical merchandise, this sort of as computer software, can be delivered electronically, doing away with the whole transportation channel. Payments can be performed in new ways. I conduct soft skills training and outbound training for Corporates and individuals . To enhance creativity we motivate the participants to approach the problems from variety of vantage points .
Even repeatedly checking the boundary conditions we are able to come up with variety of ways of solving the problem . This is akin to checking the walls of the box . With all due respect, Professor Boyd, your argument is not at all compelling. To refer to TOTB as “dangerous” is naive, at best. I, personally, have seen the positive, tranformative effects of not only the 9-dots exercise, but also the occasional use of the term to remind individuals after-the-fact about the value of thinking differently. The experiment you refer to doesn’t even come close to proving what you suggest that it does. To use the term “proving” in an argument like this is laughable.
In real life, you absolutely WILL find boxesthat is, if you understand what the term “box” refers to. It is precisely how the human mind works. We all think in boxes all the time. A different — and very healthy, positive, and productive — way to think about TOTB is to understand that it merely represents an insight that can remind an individual to consciously become aware of limiting assumptions. And, upon such awareness, to open ones mind and imagination to actively explore new possibilities beyond the obvious or initial answer. I couldn’t have said it any better TOTB is a beautiful skill to have. I’m all about TOTB and the best way to TOTB is to fully understand the box in the first place and why some people are scared of TOTB hence also lacking the ability to do so.
I think much of which is vaguely labeled “creative thinking” is actually the result of healthy skepticism. We should make a habit of challenging conventional wisdom and the way things have always been done. On encountering the conventional approach, our attitude should be doubtful: “Well, that might be right, but I will have to think about it. Fold the paper so all the dots ovelap. Use four lines to connect four dots.
Hold the folded paper up to the light. I play chess with my pc, an beat it all the time, and the reasoning is I do not think logically, like the pc does . I do not play by the rules, I can play without the queen. If was going to tell you about an airplane the TR-3B, it travels a little bit under light speed, an it uses nuclear fusion, which turns into plasma an powers the craft, that was built outside the box.
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You my brother, do not have the inkling of understanding to think outside the box. Japanese traders have found that candlesticks form interesting patterns in the seeming market chaos. These candlestick patterns are LEADING indicators and they can be used to make a profit if used correctly and effectively. The “Forex Candlestick Tactics” ebook reveals powerful methods to trade candlestick patterns combined with standard technical indicators. Should We Use Technology to Make Us More Creative? Structured tools boost, not limit, our creative output.
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New research suggests we have a tendency to look like our names. 2017 New Year’s Resolution: Be More Creative Taking the time to learn creativity is worth it! Business: What is the Stock Market Thinking? Creative Thinking Outside the Box: better if it’s leaky! Download and convert videos to 3Gp, Mp4, Mp3, M4a, Webm file formats with low to high quality, With sound or no sound depends on your needs for your mobile phone, tablet, personal computer, desktop, android phone for free. Step 1: In the search box put the artist name or the title of the video you want to download, After you place the name in the search box then click . Step 2: All videos related to your search will appear in the page results, Then in the video results choose the video you want to download then click the download button.
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Not that I am a fan of it. But it seems to me it would have the same issues. The state could make access difficult, if not impossible. They certainly could crack down on the greymarket. I think you are failing to see the positives Chris Bertram, a cashless society would encourage responsible consumption, and would provide accountability, and could also help with logistics and less waste if the cashless system was integrated more into ordering products and so on. It would be different from what we have now, but that is no reason to just see negatives about possible total government control.
I think you’re making Bertram’s point for him! Already here if you are a pornographer. The US government exerted pressure on banks to cancel bank accounts of people involved with the smut industry in Operation Choke Point. There weren’t any hearings, no need for pesky judges, and the banks rolled over because they open only by the whim of regulators. Don’t think that corporations should be able to track me and my buying habits and practices. Cashless society looks like a nightmare to me.
The sarcasm here just writes itself. I think it’s worth focusing on Chris’s negatives rather than your positives, since the negatives he’s identified are both plausible and results of this one policy, whereas the positives you’ve identified are less salient and could in any case be brought about by other policies. Does this mean that every homeless person, busker, etc. And will we send out the Soylent Green skiploaders to scoop up the ones who don’t?
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1: Can you explain that for me. Surely if governments could block bitcoin they’d be doing it already. My feeling is that elimination of cash would make crypto-currency enthusiasts’ claims about how they were fighting for freedom against the tyranny of government look a lot less ludicrous. The UK hasn’t shown much inclination to get serious about money-laundering so far. How much does this sort of control depend on it’s doing so? Seems to me that if you don’t get serious about that, all you’re doing is massively expanding the illicit economy, and granting serious power to whoever can move money between the two spheres.
Is the real story here going to be about social control by private individuals? If access to the legal economy depends on someone conducting a check of your papers, that someone has an awful lot of discretion over whether and how to make your life difficult. I use cash all the time. I find it makes it easier to track how much I am spending. Have there been any studies of the effect of cashless payments on beggars so far? 11 cards: anonymous, good for basics, hard to use for drugs or booze.
Chris, those are real dangers, which I hadn’t thought of. People have a right not to be monitored. I personally hope that any beggar who I hand money to is going to use it on drugs or booze. I can’t very well hand over the actual articles though. Ian Banks wrote a good deal about a society without money, which is a completely different proposition. Operation Choke Point was aimed at categories of businesses that the DOJ and FDIC thought were prone to money laundering and fraud.
Not sure why, perhaps because a lot of online pornography thrives on copyright violations, or maybe just the sleazy reputation of the business in general. Whatever the case it was certainly overreach to treat all businesses in a category as run by dishonest crooks. They don’t want you to do that, you know. I’m amazed that ZM doesn’t have anything to say about the crime-fighting possibilities, or the way this could promote public health initiatives. I Know What You Bought Last Wednesday.
In practice this means that people whose right to remain is cancelled could almost immediately lose access to the resources they need to fight the administrative decision against them. I couldn’t hire lawyers, for instance. Now suppose I have some cash. How exactly does that help me?
Do I have a big stack of 500-euro notes, so that I can give one to my lawyers every time an hour passes? Do I walk around with the 10,000-100,000 euros it will take me to hire representation? And do I want to deal with the lawyers who regularly get paid in stacks of cash? 10,000 with me into the country to begin with?
migrated from stackoverflow.com Feb 1 ’11 at 17:02
Maybe I keep it in a bank. Govts are good at seizing assets, esp. Banks are required to keep close tabs on deposits and withdrawals. And why would my paying them in cash persuade the govt to let me take advantage of their representation? I am doling out wads of cash every time that we meet. A few well-placed enquiries from Inland Revenue will make those solicitors pull in their horns very fast indeed. I don’t disagree with your concerns, Chris, I just think that cash per se is a side issue.
The real issue is about a seamless web of govt control of banks and law-firms and cash transfers and so on. I don’t think letting me keep a few quid of colored paper in my pockets is going to make any difference to the big picture here. Oldster said, Do I have a big stack of 500-euro notes, so that I can give one to my lawyers every time an hour passes? I am not sure how such things work in the UK, but when I worked for a public interest organization that mostly provided legal services for poor immigrants in the US, we regularly took cash from our clients for the very modest fees we charged. That’s information I did not have.
Would anything have been different if they had only had e. The problem for Bitcoin is that in a cashless society, it would be even more difficult to convert it into a usable other currency than it is now. Bitcoin dealers who can cycle money in and out of it. Very high credit card chargeback rates, plus the possibility that illegal revenue might be involved. It would then be a trivial matter to extend it to other areas.
That already covers most of us. Ending the option of using cash just closes the space in which a few marginal people subsist and makes everyone legible to the state across the full range of their behaviour. Negative interest rates will be more stimulative when There is No Alternative. EDIT: before I commented I figured I really should read the article. It turns out that my second jokey observation is the real motivation. I’m pretty sure we didn’t take them at the time. I suppose that, if people were paid with prepaid debit cards somehow, or got a hold of them, they could be used.
Interesting how the view of this changes depending on which side of the atlantic you sit. In Euro land, the existence of 500 Euro notes, and tax havens within the borders pretty much cements the link between cash and tax evasion. 20 is the largest common bill . Why you dissin’ our old friend, Benjamin Franklin? He does get around, you know. Hmm, I think there’s a passage in one of the Jack Reacher novels, where there’s extensive discussion of the utility of the US dollar for money laundering etc because the notes always stick around, whereas European notes typically change in design every few years. I am very interested in taxation and technology, and blog about it when I get the chance.
My take is that technology is coming anyway and we have to try to make the most of it and make sure it works for the less well off and not just those at the top. I think for example we can have a much more progressive tax system, for example. It might be harder but it would be possible. London buses no longer accept cash payment. Travel card top-up machines are mostly card-only, with the odd cash machine. 33: The link in your post was broken, here’s the link you want.
Bitcoin is looking better and better. Engels post to which I replied was numbered 33 when I started constructing the reply to it, but somehow became post number 35 when I submitted my reply. Germans to buy expensive things, it seems. It doesn’t seem certain yet, but apparently the talks are serious. Currencies are a public utility, available on a free and equal basis to everyone. There is undoubtedly some marginal social value in making money laundering more difficult. Privacy and freedom go hand in hand.
There’s a tangle of confusion here, I think. Why would a central bank want to eliminate cash? For the same reason as you want to flatten interest rates to zero: to force people to spend or invest their money in the risky activities that revive growth, rather than hoarding it in the safest place. Lowering interest rates is primarily about influencing the amount of money in bank accounts, not the cash stuffed in people’s mattresses. But the author happily conflates money in bank acounts with currency.
To the extent that cash is going away, it’s because consumers and merchants don’t like it compared to the alternatives. Businesses that want to track their customers’ purchases are likely to have affinity programs anyway, they don’t need cash elimination for that. They don’t need to have perfect data, or have it for absolutely everyone, to get a lot out of it. There are regulations to track large cash transfers.
The affect on the average person of these regulations is a rare bit of paperwork or nothing at all. Oyster cards are not registered, and you can also use unregistered bank cards. In both cases Transport for London have no idea who you are. And here, in the midst of giving pro tips, I screw up a link to a comment.
Here’s the Engels comment to which I was referring. When cash comes out looking bad it usually comes down to the study adding huge amounts of cost for traveling to the ATM to get cash. Keeping your money in cash is the only way to have control of your money. As soon as you put it in the bank, it can be taken away from you because you owe somebody for car payments, student loans or whatever. If your intention was to pay your rent and buy some food for your children as your top priorities, you’d better keep your money in cash. The most-needed reform is to limit the fees charged by check-cashing companies, because they really gouge people who can’t afford to use banks. Unfortunately they have a very powerful lobby.