Introduction

Students use reasoning about multiplication and division to solve ratio and rate problems about quantities. Introduction use the meaning of fractions, the meanings of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for dividing fractions make sense. Students use these operations to solve problems. Students extend their previous understandings of number and the ordering of numbers to the full system of rational numbers, which includes negative rational numbers, and in particular negative integers.

Students understand the use of variables in mathematical expressions. They write expressions and equations that correspond to given situations, evaluate expressions, and use expressions and formulas to solve problems. Students understand that expressions in different forms can be equivalent, and they use the properties of operations to rewrite expressions in equivalent forms. Students know that the solutions of an equation are the values of the variables that make the equation true. Building on and reinforcing their understanding of number, students begin to develop their ability to think statistically. Students recognize that a data distribution may not have a definite center and that different ways to measure center yield different values. The median measures center in the sense that it is roughly the middle value.

Multiply and divide multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples. Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers. Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities. Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Look for and make use of structure.

Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Please click here for the ADA Compliant version of the Math Standards. Here instead you’ll find a rather jaunty confibulation of exuberant irrelevance, followed almost invariably by wistful longing, though it’s subtle. You can even sign up to become a Mnembre, with all the amazing benefits of Mnembreship such as you could truthfully say to other people that you’re a Mnembre, if only you could figure out how to pronounce it. Who knows, the site may even be updated from time to time.

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The sense of “formal presentation of one person to another” is from 1711. Many of the examples in this manual, even those entered at the interactive prompt, include comments. A comment may appear at the start of a line or following whitespace or code, but not within a string literal. A hash character within a string literal is just a hash character. Since comments are to clarify code and are not interpreted by Python, they may be omitted when typing in examples.

This is not a comment because it’s inside quotes. Let’s try some simple Python commands. The interpreter acts as a simple calculator: you can type an expression at it and it will write the value. We will see more about numeric types later in the tutorial.

This variable should be treated as read-only by the user. Don’t explicitly assign a value to it — you would create an independent local variable with the same name masking the built-in variable with its magic behavior. Besides numbers, Python can also manipulate strings, which can be expressed in several ways. In the interactive interpreter, the output string is enclosed in quotes and special characters are escaped with backslashes. The string is enclosed in double quotes if the string contains a single quote and no double quotes, otherwise it is enclosed in single quotes. String literals can span multiple lines. Put several strings within parentheses to have them joined together.

Note that since -0 is the same as 0, negative indices start from -1. In addition to indexing, slicing is also supported. Note how the start is always included, and the end always excluded. One way to remember how slices work is to think of the indices as pointing between characters, with the left edge of the first character numbered 0. The slice from i to j consists of all characters between the edges labeled i and j, respectively.

For non-negative indices, the length of a slice is the difference of the indices, if both are within bounds. Strings are examples of sequence types, and support the common operations supported by such types. Strings support a large number of methods for basic transformations and searching. String literals that have embedded expressions. Information about string formatting with str. Python knows a number of compound data types, used to group together other values.

Lists might contain items of different types, but usually the items all have the same type. All slice operations return a new list containing the requested elements. Of course, we can use Python for more complicated tasks than adding two and two together. This example introduces several new features.

On the last line this is used again, demonstrating that the expressions on the right-hand side are all evaluated first before any of the assignments take place. The right-hand side expressions are evaluated from the left to the right. The test used in the example is a simple comparison. The body of the loop is indented: indentation is Python’s way of grouping statements.

An Informal Introduction to Python 3. Using Python as a Calculator 3. The Python Software Foundation is a non-profit corporation. Last updated on Jul 21, 2018.

С 2016 года Decred стремится решить проблему управления блокчейном. Наша инновационная модель консенсусного голосования дает участникам возможность влиять на принятие решений и позволяет плавно переходить от одного набора правил к другому. Наша модульная кодовая база обладает уникальной способностью к адаптации и может масштабироваться для применения новейших блокчейн-технологий. Технология Decred позволила провести первое в мире успешное прямое консенсусное ончейн-голосование пользователей.

Широкие возможности для частных лиц, организаций и предприятий. Мы работаем при опоре на силы сообщества. Пользователи, участвующие в принятии решений относительно судьбы Decred, получают вознаграждение. Decred — это инновационная криптовалюта с замечательными разработчиками. Мы лидируем по качеству и скорости разработки в своей отрасли. Защищенная от цензуры открытая платформа предложений на основе блокчейна.

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Выгодные соглашения, приносящие реальную пользу — например, Lightning Network. Атомарные кроссчейн-транзакции между разными цифровыми валютами. Это обеспечивает плавный переход от одного набора правил к другому при сохранении неизменности существующей экосистемы блокчейна. Decred не требует использования централизованных валютных бирж. Decred использует защищенную от цензуры платформу предложений на основе блокчейна, которая позволяет пользователям подавать заявки на финансирование своих собственных проектов с помощью субсидий блока DCR.

Decred заключает выгодные соглашения, приносящие реальную пользу. Благодаря LN, Decred может напрямую конкурировать с существующими платежными системами на основе фиатных валют. Более опытным пользователям также доступны кошельки с интерфейсом на основе командной строки. Текущие цели — создание децентрализованной автономной организации, полностью управляемой участниками, и повышение конфиденциальности пользователей. Технологии обеспечения конфиденциальности и безопасности должны внедряться на постоянной и поэтапной основе, как проактивно, так и по мере необходимости в ответ на попытки нарушения защиты. Каждый имеет право высказывать свои идеи и мнения, не опасаясь цензуры.

Все конструктивные высказывания, имеющие причины и основывающиеся на фактах, должны быть рассмотрены. Принцип инклюзивности находит отражение в существовании системы со множеством участников и требует постоянного приложения усилий для поддержания разнообразия мнений и пользователей. Эти принципы были выработаны для формирования стабильной и равноправной структуры, которая позволит достичь цели Decred по созданию автономной и полностью децентрализованной валюты, дающей реальное право голоса всем участникам. Decred — это мультиплатформенная цифровая валюта с поддержкой Windows, macOS и Linux. Удобные кошельки позволяют отправлять, получать и майнить Decred буквально в несколько кликов. For those who like to tinker, Decred provides a full suite of command line tools allowing customization of the Decred experience. Кошелек— для отправки и получения средств, а также участия в PoS-майнинге.

Proof-of-Work майнинг — использование вычислительных ресурсов для проверки транзакций сети и генерации новых токенов Decred. Proof-of-Stake майнинг — использование денежных средств для голосования по важным вопросам сети и проверки транзакций за вознаграждение. Веб-кошелек — это наиболее простой способ начать использовать Decred. Он доступен онлайн на сайте wallet.

Для пользователей Windows, macOS и Linux также доступен кошелек Decrediton. Перед началом работы советуем ознакомиться с Руководством для начинающих . Адрес — единственное, что требуется для отправки и получения средств. Его легко сгенерировать в любом кошельке Decred. Адреса Decred всегда начинаются с буквы D и состоят из 26-36 букв и цифр. После совершения транзакции средства, как правило, поступают в течение 5 минут.

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Вдобавок к сумме транзакции списывается небольшая комиссия на поддержание сети. Например, комиссия за перевод 100 DCR составит около 0,006 DCR. Под термином майнинг понимается процесс проверки транзакций и обеспечения безопасности сети Decred. За свою работу майнеры получают сгенерированные в этом процессе монеты Decred. После прохождения проверки блок становится постоянной составляющей сети Decred. Вы можете стать майнером, предоставив сети свободные вычислительные ресурсы своего компьютера. За это майнеры получают вознаграждение в Decred.

Для повышения эффективности и удобства вы можете присоединиться к одному из майнинговых пулов. Пулы — это группы майнеров, которые работают вместе и делят вознаграждение между собой. Присоединение к майнинговому пулу — прекрасный способ для мелких участников получать постоянные выплаты за свою работу. Денежные средства Decred используются для покупки голосующих билетов сети. В каждом блоке случайным образом выбираются пять штук из всего пула билетов в сети для подтверждения предыдущего блока.

PoS — это дополнительный элемент децентрализации Decred. Кроме того, он позволяет пользователям голосовать по предлагаемым изменениям сети. Для PoS тоже существуют пулы, помогающие гарантировать, что ваши билеты в любой момент будут готовы к голосованию. Decred — пока еще новая валюта, и купить ее проще всего за биткоины. Обменять биткоины на Decred вы можетечерез цифровые сервисы обмена валют. Децентрализация процессов позволяет людям с разными идеями, целями и мнениями участвовать в формировании будущего. У вас наверняка остались вопросы, поэтому присоединяйтесь к нашему растущему сообществу, где можно пообщаться с разработчиками и другими пользователями, узнать информацию, получить ответы и просто хорошо провести время.

Part of the reward from new blocks goes towards the development of Decred to ensure that it will continually evolve to meet the needs and wants of the community now and in the years to come. Read about these and more on our blog. Our focus is on you, our customer. Despite decades of conflict, death and tragedy, coverage of issues in Africa has often been ignored, oversimplified, or excessively focused on limited aspects.

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Deeper analysis, background and context has often been lacking, so despite what seems like constant images of starving children in famines, news of billions in aid to Africa from generous donor countries, the background context and analysis is often missing. Whether aid makes the situation worse, or why there is famine and hunger in Africa when African nations are exporting crops to other parts of the world are rarely asked by the mainstream. Eritrea and the various other civil wars. Source: UNHCR, accessed November 30, 2009If this scale of destruction and fighting was in Europe, then people would be calling it World War III with the entire world rushing to report, provide aid, mediate and otherwise try to diffuse the situation.

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Israel, each of which were serious conflicts, but in terms of deaths and displaced, were often far less than many conflicts in Africa. 2000 to see what percentage of their media focus fell where. Virgil Hawkins, Conflict Death Tolls, Stealth Conflicts, November 23, 2008More coverage about issues concerning Africa can be found on the Internet than the traditional mainstream media outlets, but even then it is not as easy to find the information. But even Africa, the death toll has little to do with the levels of coverage.

80 times smaller than that in the DRC. Similarly, political violence in early 2007 in Zimbabwe resulting in one death and a number of arrests and beatings of political leaders became the object of relatively high levels of attention and indignation in the Western media. Virgil Hawkins, What’s death got to do with it? Stealth Conflicts, December 12, 2008But why is it important whether or not media outlets in countries such as those in the West provide coverage of African and other conflicts that do not appear to involve them? Background such as the colonial as well as post-World War II history, social and political context, international economic issues and much more are all perspectives needed to help people in the western nations and elsewhere to really begin to understand the present situations and issues in appropriate context. In international affairs, influential nations, such as many from western countries all have direct and indirect influences around the world, so it is important for such issues to be presented broadly and to see issues such as those in Africa with this context in mind.

Angola, which has seen an estimated 500,000 people killed since 1989 and an estimated 3 million refugees. It is also being torn apart due to resources such as diamonds and offshore oil, with various factions fighting for these prizes, supported by multinational corporations and other governments. The Zambian Connection: Ukrainian plane came to deliver UNITA diamonds? Monitor for Human Rights and Development, Issue 101, April 7-13 2000, also reports on the Diamond and Zambia connection. ANGOLA: Allegations of embezzlement of ‘petrodollars’, by IRIN, the U. DRC is also involved in some of these civil wars.

No less than 28 Sub-Saharan African states have been at war since 1980, as pointed out by international development organization, ID21. When the missionaries came to Africa they had the Bible and we had the land. When we opened them we had the Bible and they had the land. The freedom from imperial powers was, and is still, not a smooth transition. The natural struggle to rebuild is proving difficult. Between 1870 and World War I alone, the European scramble for Africa resulted in the adding of around one-fifth of the land area of the globe to its overseas colonial possessions.

Introduction

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Colonial administrations started to take hold. In some areas, Europeans were encouraged to settle, thus creating dominant minority societies. France even planned to incorporate Algeria into the French state, such was the dominance and confidence of colonial rulers at the time. In other cases, the classic divide and conquer techniques had to be used to get local people to help administer colonial administrations. Some were only too willing to help for their own ends. In most areas colonial administrations did not have the manpower or resources to fully administer the territory and had to rely on local power structures to help them. Various factions and groups within the societies exploited this European requirement for their own purposes, attempting to gain a position of power within their own communities by cooperating with Europeans.

This site’s section on Rwanda notes how this invention of tradition was one of the contributing factors to the eventual genocide, as well as other factors. Throughout Africa, Europe staked a claim. Some of the inspiration for this movement came from the First World War in which European countries had relied on colonial troops for their own defence. Many in Africa realized their own strength with regard to the colonizer for the first time. We must remember that the European agreements that had carved up Africa into states paid little attention to cultural and ethnic boundaries and ethnic groups had little opportunity or need to form political alliances or accommodations under repressive colonial rule. Consider the extent to which he Second World War of just 6 years duration has pervaded the consciousness of our developed world for 2 generations and imagine how 4 centuries of enslavement might have seized the entire social and cultural ethos of an undeveloped continent. To establish a type of nationwide government, colonial administrators effectively set about inventing African traditions for Africa, that would make the process more acceptable to the indigenous population.

These were the dangerous sands upon which the colonialists imposed a new political geography. However once in motion, the process was enthusiastically reinforced by the Africans themselves. Tribes became the object of passionate African imagination. Some chroniclers have endowed their tribes with a retrospective primordial essence. Rather like Yeats did with the similarly disenfranchised Irish. The British ruled through these local hierarchies, a process which unconsciously promoted the most malleable, collaborative or corrupt local chiefs and where none existed, as we’ve seen, they simply created one, enabling ambitious individuals and groups to achieve positions of status, dominance, and wealth that might otherwise have been unattainable.

23. Closet Concepts

To counter this tribalism some African leaders proclaimed the single party state to be the only means to control the excessive, ethnically based competition for the global goods of modernity — education, health, and the eradication of poverty. Competitive democracy they said would only lead to penury. Yet one-party rule unrestrained by the moral check of shared community had the same result. It proved to be a mask for oppression, ethnocracy and kleptocracy. I was in Washington last year.

Introduction