About this, as well as about the unexpected consequences of studying psychics, "AiF" talks with the supervisor of the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, academician Yuri Gulyaev.
Dmitry Pisarenko, AiF: – Yuri Vasilyevich, you and your colleagues, back in the 1960s, suggested using surface acoustic waves (SAW) in electronics, thanks to which many electronic devices in the world are now working. What did you and the Soviet Union personally fuck with this?
Yuri Gulyaev: – I was able to buy a car for a royalty. He also became the laureate of the Moscow Komsomol Prize in 1964.
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The most widely used devices on surfactants are frequency filters. With two employees, I had 18 patents for an important type of these filters – Japan, Germany, Great Britain, etc. We were authors, but the patents belonged to the state. It sold them, and we received a one-time reward. The first patent was sold to a Japanese company, which today is one of the main manufacturers of unique devices for surfactants.
But patents “died” long ago, and now all over the world these filters are produced freely. The market is estimated at $ 20 billion a year. These are tens of billions of miniature filters that stand in every TV, radio, mobile phone. Without them, modern communication is impossible.
– What exactly do they do?
– Simply put, they share signals from different transmitters. For example, one talking subscriber is separated from another, one radio station – from another. If you take a cell phone, then it essentially consists of three main devices – a semiconductor amplifier on heterostructures, invented by Zhores Alferov, a set of SAW filters and a semiconductor memory system. In the smartphone, a minicomputer is also connected to these three blocks.
And the first use of filters on surfactants found in televisions. If earlier in each TV receiver there was a massive block of coils that still had to be tuned, then our filters allowed us to abandon them and make the TVs compact. These filters are passive, they do not require power – and this is their most important advantage.
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– It turns out that our country owned a technology that could provide it with world leadership in electronics, but missed it?
– Yes, we can say that with the collapse of the Union, we lost this race. Because the then leadership of Russia did not attach any importance to the need for the development of electronics. Although the country in those years was quite competitive in the field of microelectronics. In particular, we are in 1970-80. built two plants for the production of filters, delay lines and other devices for surfactants – in Cherkasy and Minsk. But now they work in other states …
Now filters on surfactants are massively stamped in Southeast Asia – they cost cents there. In Russia, they also produce, but very little. And exclusively for special applications. It is clear that we cannot purchase such components abroad for the defense of the country – they can make “bookmarks” in order to later manage our equipment from a foreign territory. Say, the rocket will start, but it will be deployed and sent back.
But it's not just the surfactant filters. We had the prerequisites for leadership in other technologies. When in 1989 I headed the subcommittee of the Supreme Council for Communications and Informatics, there were only 9 telephones per 100 inhabitants in the USSR. And, for example, in Zimbabwe – 13. I don’t speak about Europe and America.
At the suggestion of Gorbachev, I then assembled a team of specialists in the field of informatization. We made a powerful program that was based on four principles. The first is the digitalization of communications and radio electronics in general. That is, 30 years ago we proposed the transition “to the figure”, which is now being said so much. The second is the introduction of fiber in the trunk lines. The third is the development of satellite communications. And the fourth technological solution was the deployment of cellular communication.
Its principle was known from the middle of the twentieth century, but was not widely used. The equipment took up too much space then – such bulky devices except for carrying in the trunk of a car. Only after the surfactant filters and the Alfer Amplifiers appeared in the 1970s, did it become possible to fit the cellular transmitter receiver into a handbag or pocket.
– But many scientists from different countries of the world participated in the creation of cellular communication.
– This is true. But we completed our work and sent articles to scientific journals a little earlier than the Americans or the Japanese did. In 1989, as a people's deputy, I announced a tender for the creation of a mobile phone in the USSR. It was attended by 14 companies from America, Europe and Russia. Two firms won, and on October 10, 1989, a cell phone rang in Moscow for the first time.
Then the State Emergency Committee happened, the USSR collapsed, and our informatization program began to develop in relation to the new Russia. In particular, today, over 140 million mobile phones fall on the 140 million population of the country. The world recognize our primacy in this area of research, but only in the scientific literature. And where are the leading companies for the production of cell phones, you yourself know.
Understand Jun. What physicists saw while studying psychics
What was the secret of Juna?
– In the 1980s, at the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, under your supervision, psychics were studied. What for?
– It brought us to a new line of research related to medicine. Here is how it was. In 1977, I was invited to see Academician Isaac Kikoin to see how a woman from Leningrad, Ninel Kulagina, knows how to “move objects with the power of thought”. A light object was placed on the table in front of her, she was tense – and the object was, in fact, moving.
Of course, we, the physicists (and many well-known scientists were present there), were shocked. I even picked up two of my employees for the experiment, asked them to sit on the sides and pick up the thread at a certain moment: we assumed that Kulagin’s fingers were stretching very thin threads to the object. They raised their thread, but the movement continued. I became interested in what we saw and decided to conduct a study of the “Kulagina effect” with my staff. The work took place at my home.
In the end, we found out what was wrong. Ninel Kulagina had very sweating hands. When walking, each person has an electric charge on the body from friction. Kulagina threw drops of sweat on the object, and he received a negative charge, but her hands were also negatively charged. And the same charges, as is well known, repel each other. Therefore, the subject moved.
We made the device, which amongst themselves was called the witchman. These are two copper plates at a short distance, an ammeter, a voltmeter and a battery. So we measured the charge that Kulagina threw out, and explained its phenomenon. Naturally, there was no mysticism there.
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– But the main psychic, who had a chance to explore, was still Juna. What was her secret?
– Juna, we were engaged on the personal order of Brezhnev. We were even asked to take her to the staff of the institute as a senior researcher, but without a degree. She was paid a salary of 170 rubles per month.
We have compiled a program for measuring physical fields and radiation of a person in general. The fact is that around our body (as well as around any animal) the biofields – electrical, magnetic, acoustic, light, chemical – are formed in the process of vital activity. And if there are fields, then they can somehow be measured.
We bought equipment, picked up a room in a quiet corner of Moscow, and started working. And they found out that Juna has one feature. If an ordinary person can feel the temperature difference between two objects at 0.4 ° C (for example, the mother determines the temperature of the child by putting his hand on his forehead), then Juna felt a difference of 0.2 ° C. She led her hand over the patient's skin and felt where the temperature was slightly higher or lower. And the surface of our body is divided into the so-called Zakharyin-Ged zones: each zone is associated with a specific organ. This is in medical textbooks. We found out that if some organ is sick, then its zone will be a bit colder due to the “imperceptible” evaporation of sweat. Juna did not know anything about Zakharyin-Ged's zones, but she was an excellent masseuse. And just started to do massage in the chilled area of the body. And this is usually good for the body, although there are exceptions. And she was by nature a good psychologist and even a psychotherapist.
That's the whole secret of her success. By the way, the ability to feel the temperature is achieved by training. We taught this to students, and some also began to sense a difference of 0.2 ° C. We ourselves have created a device that was even more sensitive. If a person feels 0.4 ° C, then our device is 0.01 ° C.
– What practical benefits did the study of psychics give?
– The most interesting of all biofields is magnetic. When an ECG is taken from you, the electrical potentials on the surface of the skin, which are formed when the heart is working, are analyzed. But, generally speaking, it does not give accurate knowledge of what is happening in the myocardium. Because the electric current generated by the myocardium spreads to the skin for each person individually: the complete ones have the same characteristics of the tissues, while the bad one has the other. But the magnetic field, which creates the same current, does not depend on intermediate tissues. And therefore more informative. We developed and created a magnetocardiograph. Using such a device, it is possible, for example, to predict in advance that a person may soon have a heart attack. And the ECG will not show it.
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Another important thing is a mammographer. How does a regular device? This is, in fact, an x-ray machine. Firstly, it is harmful (examination of the patient is recommended no more than 1-2 times a year), and, secondly, it detects a tumor when there are already enough cancer cells. And we created a mammograph, which measures the electrical conductivity of breast tissue. If there are cancer cells there, blood will leak to them due to their high activity. And blood conducts electricity well, and we will see this zone. Then we advise you to do a biopsy. An x-ray will not notice these cancer cells at all, since there are very few of them. In addition, our device (electrical impedance computer mammograph) is absolutely harmless – it can be used at least every day. And ten times cheaper than an x-ray mammography.
It turns out that the medical devices made by us are a kind of Juna’s legacy. We studied the phenomenon of the healer, to which there is a very ambiguous attitude in society, and now our laboratory is creating a unique diagnostic equipment that helps people. Isn't it amazing?
. (tagsToTranslate) psychics (t) Juna Davitashvili (t) history of the USSR