Your internet connection may be unreliable. For more information about the W3C website, see the Webmaster FAQ. Your internet how to get a RPC error message in detail, more than “Internal server error”? may be unreliable.
For more information about the W3C website, see the Webmaster FAQ. M9 1a8 8 0 1 0 0 16A8 8 0 0 0 9 1zm. I have Exchange clusters located in 2 different states conencted by a DS3. It’s very inconsistent and will even switch between the remote users if I let the scheduling assistant sit and refresh. Is there a replication issue, or does anyone have any other ideas? Though the inconsistent nature of your problem suggests a timeout of some kind. This answer started the search for a solution for me and it appears to be working now.
For all future visitors: I ended up adding an internal SSL rule in ISA and that seems to have made it work. I also ended up at this page: shudnow. This is especially critical for users of RPC over HTTP. On clients using RPC over HTTP and NTLM authentication, Outlook defaults the authentication method to “Negotiate” changing this to “NTLM” not only increases the performance of the client but it also resolves the scheduling assistant not working. Not the answer you’re looking for? My message did not reach some or all of the intended recipients ? Why would a buck converter IC fail and blow up?
How would a sailing ship travel on land? In the market or to the market? Is Nibiru real or totally science fiction? What mechanism can prevent super-healing heroes from accidentally budding? How do I find the temperatures without 3rd party software? Is there a maximum attainable beard thickness?
Demographics: Were diseases the sole reason for the decrease in native Hawaiian population? Is it alright to top off with oil instead of changing after 3000 miles? What benefits do you get from the Belt of Dwarvenkind without attuning to it? Why allow convicted criminals to vote? What’s the point of a “once per combat” and a “on your first turn” clauses in the same feature?
Should I share a scan of my published paper with an academic in my field? Why the transpose of a singular matrix is singular? What password hash function for the next 50 years? 2 For Whom Is the FAQ Written?
1 What is a network firewall? 2 Why would I want a firewall? 3 What can a firewall protect against? 1 What are some of the basic design decisions in a firewall? 2 What are the basic types of firewalls? 1 What is source routed traffic and why is it a threat?
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2 What are ICMP redirects and redirect bombs? 3 What about denial of service? 1 Do I really want to allow everything that my users ask for? 2 How do I know which application uses what port? Some Commercial Products and Vendors B.
Usenet, mailing lists, and Web sites. If you have a question, looking here to see whether it’s answered before posting your question is good form. Don’t send your questions about firewalls to the FAQ maintainers. The maintainers welcome input and comments on the contents of this FAQ. Firewalls have come a long way from the days when this FAQ started.
They’ve gone from being highly customized systems administered by their implementors to a mainstream commodity. We wrote this FAQ for computer systems developers and administrators. The firewalls-faq address is not a help desk. If you’re trying to use an application that says that it’s not working because of a firewall and you think that you need to remove your firewall, please do not send us mail asking how. The provider of the hardware “appliance” you’re using. The provider of the network service you’re using. That is, if you’re on AOL, ask them.
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If you’re trying to use something on a corporate network, talk to your system administrator. 4 Where Can I find the Current Version of the FAQ? Posted versions are archived in all the usual places. Unfortunately, the version posted to Usenet and archived from that version lack the pretty pictures and useful hyperlinks found in the web version. 5 Where Can I Find Non-English Versions of the FAQ?
If you’ve done a translation and it’s not listed here, please write us so we can update the master document. We’d like to thank afew by name: Keinanen Vesa, Allen Leibowitz, Brent Chapman, Brian Boyle, D. Clyde Williamson, Richard Reiner, Humberto Ortiz Zuazaga, Theodore Hope, and Patrick Darden. This document may be used, reprinted, and redistributed as is providing this copyright notice and all attributions remain intact. Translations of the complete text from the original English to other languages are also explicitly allowed.
Translators may add their names to the “Contributors” section. A firewall is a system or group of systems that enforces an access control policy between two or more networks. The actual means by which this is accomplished varies widely, but in principle, the firewall can be thought of as a pair of mechanisms: one which exists to block traffic, and the other which exists to permit traffic. Some firewalls place a greater emphasis on blocking traffic, while others emphasize permitting traffic.
The Internet, like any other society, is plagued with the kind of jerks who enjoy the electronic equivalent of writing on other people’s walls with spraypaint, tearing their mailboxes off, or just sitting in the street blowing their car horns. Some people try to get real work done over the Internet, and others have sensitive or proprietary data they must protect. Some firewalls permit only email traffic through them, thereby protecting the network against any attacks other than attacks against the email service. Other firewalls provide less strict protections, and block services that are known to be problems.
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Generally, firewalls are configured to protect against unauthenticated interactive logins from the “outside” world. 4 What can’t a firewall protect against? Firewalls can’t protect against attacks that don’t go through the firewall. Many corporations that connect to the Internet are very concerned about proprietary data leaking out of the company through that route. Unfortunately for those concerned, a magnetic tape, compact disc, DVD, or USB flash drives can just as effectively be used to export data. USB firewalling technology on their desktops and systems in public areas.
The details are outside the scope of this FAQ. Badly written, pooly thought out, or non-existent organizational policy. A firewall is the end extension of an organization’s security policy. Executive buy-in is key to good security practice, as is the complete and unbiased enforcement of your policies.
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Firewalls can’t protect against political exceptions to the policy, so these must be documented and kept at a miniumum. Another thing a firewall can’t really protect you against is traitors or idiots inside your network. 5 What about viruses and other malware? There are too many ways of encoding binary files for transfer over networks, and too many different architectures and viruses to try to search for them all.
In other words, a firewall cannot replace security-consciousness on the part of your users. You must also balance the risks associated with the failure of a single component in an all-in-one solution and the ability to compromsie the entire system versus using different platforms for each feature. Lots of malicious software, or malware is packed, encrypted, compressed or archived. A strong firewall is never a substitute for sensible software that recognizes the nature of what it’s handling–untrusted data from an unauthenticated party–and behaves appropriately.
Do not think that because “everyone” is using that mailer or because the vendor is a gargantuan multinational company, you’re safe. 6 Will IPSEC make firewalls obsolete? Some have argued that this is the case. Before pronouncing such a sweeping prediction, however, it’s worthwhile to consider what IPSEC is and what it does. Once we know this, we can consider whether IPSEC will solve the problems that we’re trying to solve with firewalls. 7 What are good sources of print information on firewalls? There are several books that touch on firewalls.
8 Where can I get more information on firewalls on the Internet? The Site Security Handbook is an information IETF document that describes the basic issues that must be addressed for building good site security. Firewalls are one part of a larger security strategy, as the Site Security Handbook shows. There are a number of basic design issues that should be addressed by the lucky person who has been tasked with the responsibility of designing, specifying, and implementing or overseeing the installation of a firewall. They are not as different as you might think, and latest technologies are blurring the distinction to the point where it’s no longer clear if either one is “better” or “worse.
As always, you need to be careful to pick the type that meets your needs. Which is which depends on what mechanisms the firewall uses to pass traffic from one security zone to another. In Figure 1, a network layer firewall called a “screened host firewall” is represented. In a screened host firewall, access to and from a single host is controlled by means of a router operating at a network layer. Example Network layer firewall: In Figure 2, a network layer firewall called a “screened subnet firewall” is represented. In a screened subnet firewall, access to and from a whole network is controlled by means of a router operating at a network layer.
It is similar to a screened host, except that it is, effectively, a network of screened hosts. Example Application layer firewall: In Figure 3, an application layer firewall called a “dual homed gateway” is represented. A dual homed gateway is a highly secured host that runs proxy software. It has two network interfaces, one on each network, and blocks all traffic passing through it.
Most firewalls now lie someplace between network layer firewalls and application layer firewalls. Proxies are often used instead of router-based traffic controls, to prevent traffic from passing directly between networks. Many proxies contain extra logging or support for user authentication. 4 What are some cheap packet screening tools?
M University security tools include software for implementing screening routers. There are numerous kernel-level packet screens, including ipf, ipfw, ipchains, pf, and ipfwadm. 5 What are some reasonable filtering rules for a kernel-based packet screen? F -f ipfwadm -F -p deny ipfwadm -F -i m -b -P tcp -S 0. 33 25 ipfwadm -F -i m -b -P tcp -S 0. 33 53 ipfwadm -F -i m -b -P udp -S 0.
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33 53 ipfwadm -F -a m -S 192. IP addresses out to all external addresses on all protocols, all ports. Line eight adds a route so that traffic going to 201. 33 will be directed to the internal address 192. 6 What are some reasonable filtering rules for a Cisco?
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The example in Figure 4 shows one possible configuration for using the Cisco as filtering router. It is a sample that shows the implementation of as specific policy. In this example, a company has Class C network address 195. Company network is connected to Internet via IP Service Provider. Company policy is to allow everybody access to Internet services, so all outgoing connections are accepted. All incoming connections go through “mailhost”.
Mail and DNS are only incoming services. Only incoming packets from Internet are checked in this configuration. Rules are tested in order and stop when the first match is found. There is an implicit deny rule at the end of an access list that denies everything. This IP access list assumes that you are running Cisco IOS v. 0 no ip directed-broadcast ip access-group 101 in ! Drop directed broadcasts, which are used in smurf attacks.
If an incoming packet claims to be from a local net, loopback network, or private network, drop it. All packets which are part of already established TCP-connections can pass through without further checking. All connections to low port numbers are blocked except SMTP and DNS. Block all services that listen for TCP connections on high port numbers. UDP, but it can be run over TCP, so you should block it. Incoming connections from port 20 into high port numbers are supposed to be FTP data connections. Users can easily install backdoors to their systems to get over “no incoming telnet” or “no X11” rules.
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Also crackers install telnet backdoors on systems where they break in. You can never be sure what services you have listening for connections on high port numbers. You can’t be sure of what services you have listening for connections on low port numbers, either, especially in highly decentralized environments where people can put their own machines on the network or where they can get administrative access to their own machines. Checking the source port on incoming FTP data connections is a weak security method. It also breaks access to some FTP sites. It makes use of the service more difficult for users without preventing bad guys from scanning your systems. Use at least Cisco version 9.
21 so you can filter incoming packets and check for address spoofing. It’s still better to use 10. You have still a few ways to make your setup stronger. Block all incoming TCP-connections and tell users to use passive-FTP clients. 7 What are the critical resources in a firewall? It’s important to understand the critical resources of your firewall architecture, so when you do capacity planning, performance optimizations, etc.
What exactly the firewall’s critical resources are tends to vary from site to site, depending on the sort of traffic that loads the system. 8 What is a DMZ, and why do I want one? DMZ” is an abbreviation for “demilitarized zone”. In the context of firewalls, this refers to a part of the network that is neither part of the internal network nor directly part of the Internet. Typically, this is the area between your Internet access router and your bastion host, though it can be between any two policy-enforcing components of your architecture. 9 How might I increase the security and scalability of my DMZ? A common approach for an attacker is to break into a host that’s vulnerable to attack, and exploit trust relationships between the vulnerable host and more interesting targets.