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Sudah seru, odds nya menguntungkan lagi! Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states a Wikipedia editor’s personal feelings about a topic. The act of accessing may mean consuming, entering, or using. Locks and login credentials are two analogous mechanisms of access control.
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There may be fences to avoid circumventing this access control. The term access control refers to the practice of restricting entrance to a property, a building, or a room to authorized persons. Physical access control is a matter of who, where, and when. An access control system determines who is allowed to enter or exit, where they are allowed to exit or enter, and when they are allowed to enter or exit.
Historically, this was partially accomplished through keys and locks. When a door is locked, only someone with a key can enter through the door, depending on how the lock is configured. Mechanical locks and keys do not allow restriction of the key holder to specific times or dates. Electronic access control uses computers to solve the limitations of mechanical locks and keys. A wide range of credentials can be used to replace mechanical keys. The electronic access control system grants access based on the credential presented.
When access is granted, the door is unlocked for a predetermined time and the transaction is recorded. When a credential is presented to a reader, the reader sends the credential’s information, usually a number, to a control panel, a highly reliable processor. The control panel compares the credential’s number to an access control list, grants or denies the presented request, and sends a transaction log to a database. The above description illustrates a single factor transaction. Credentials can be passed around, thus subverting the access control list. Passwords are a common means of verifying a user’s identity before access is given to information systems.
In addition, a fourth factor of authentication is now recognized: someone you know, whereby another person who knows you can provide a human element of authentication in situations where systems have been set up to allow for such scenarios. For example, a user may have their password, but have forgotten their smart card. Also available are key-fobs, which are more compact than ID cards, and attach to a key ring. An access control point can be a door, turnstile, parking gate, elevator, or other physical barrier, where granting access can be electronically controlled. Typically, the access point is a door. An electronic access control door can contain several elements.
At its most basic, there is a stand-alone electric lock. The lock is unlocked by an operator with a switch. To automate this, operator intervention is replaced by a reader. Access control decisions are made by comparing the credential to an access control list. The development of access control systems has seen a steady push of the look-up out from a central host to the edge of the system, or the reader.
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The predominant topology circa 2009 is hub and spoke with a control panel as the hub, and the readers as the spokes. PIN, and forward it to a control panel. In case of biometric identification, such readers output the ID number of a user. This is the most popular type of access control readers. When a user presents a card or enters a PIN, the reader sends information to the main controller, and waits for its response. If the connection to the main controller is interrupted, such readers stop working, or function in a degraded mode. Like semi-intelligent readers, they are connected to a control panel via an RS-485 bus.
The control panel sends configuration updates, and retrieves events from the readers. Access control readers may also be classified by their type of identification technology. 485 converters or internal RS-485 cards have to be installed, as standard PCs do not have RS-485 communication ports. The maximum number of devices on an RS-485 line is limited to 32, which means that the host can frequently request status updates from each device, and display events almost in real time. High reliability and security as the communication line is not shared with any other systems. The highest possible throughput is 115. RS-485 does not allow the host PC to communicate with several controllers connected to the same port simultaneously.
Therefore, in large systems, transfers of configuration, and users to controllers may take a very long time, interfering with normal operations. Controllers cannot initiate communication in case of an alarm. The host PC acts as a master on the RS-485 communication line, and controllers have to wait until they are polled. Special serial switches are required, in order to build a redundant host PC setup. Separate RS-485 lines have to be installed, instead of using an already existing network infrastructure.
Cable that meets RS-485 standards is significantly more expensive than regular Category 5 UTP network cable. Operation of the system is highly dependent on the host PC. Sub-controllers usually do not make access decisions, and instead forward all requests to the main controllers. Main controllers usually support from 16 to 32 sub-controllers. Work load on the host PC is significantly reduced, because it only needs to communicate with a few main controllers. The overall cost of the system is lower, as sub-controllers are usually simple and inexpensive devices.
All other advantages listed in the first paragraph apply. Operation of the system is highly dependent on main controllers. If the main controller fails, sub-controllers change to degraded mode in which doors are either completely locked or unlocked, and no events are recorded. Such sub-controllers should be avoided, or used only in areas that do not require high security. Main controllers tend to be expensive, therefore such a topology is not very well suited for systems with multiple remote locations that have only a few doors.
All other RS-485-related disadvantages listed in the first paragraph apply. All door hardware is connected directly to intelligent or semi-intelligent readers. Readers usually do not make access decisions, and forward all requests to the main controller. Only if the connection to the main controller is unavailable, will the readers use their internal database to make access decisions and record events. In spite of the rapid development and increasing use of computer networks, access control manufacturers remained conservative, and did not rush to introduce network-enabled products.
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Allows utilizing the existing network infrastructure for connecting separate segments of the system. Provides a convenient solution in cases when the installation of an RS-485 line would be difficult or impossible. There are also additional delays introduced in the process of conversion between serial and network data. All the RS-485-related advantages and disadvantages also apply. The topology is nearly the same as described in the second and third paragraphs.
The same advantages and disadvantages apply, but the on-board network interface offers a couple of valuable improvements. Transmission of configuration and user data to the main controllers is faster, and may be done in parallel. This makes the system more responsive, and does not interrupt normal operations. Controllers are connected to a host PC via Ethernet LAN or WAN. An existing network infrastructure is fully utilized, and there is no need to install new communication lines. Special RS-485 installation, termination, grounding and troubleshooting knowledge is not required.
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In case of an alarm, controllers may initiate connection to the host PC. This ability is important in large systems, because it serves to reduce network traffic caused by unnecessary polling. Simplifies installation of systems consisting of multiple sites that are separated by large distances. A basic Internet link is sufficient to establish connections to the remote locations.
The system becomes susceptible to network related problems, such as delays in case of heavy traffic and network equipment failures. Access controllers and workstations may become accessible to hackers if the network of the organization is not well protected. This threat may be eliminated by physically separating the access control network from the network of the organization. Also it should be noted that most IP controllers utilize either Linux platform or proprietary operating systems, which makes them more difficult to hack. Industry standard data encryption is also used. Operation of the system is dependent on the host PC. Some controllers, however, have a peer-to-peer communication option in order to reduce dependency on the host PC.
Readers are connected to a host PC via Ethernet LAN or WAN. Most IP readers are PoE capable. IP readers eliminate the need for controller enclosures. IP reader systems scale easily: there is no need to install new main or sub-controllers. Failure of one IP reader does not affect any other readers in the system.
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Not all IP reader manufacturers have such modules available. Being more sophisticated than basic readers, IP readers are also more expensive and sensitive, therefore they should not be installed outdoors in areas with harsh weather conditions, or high probability of vandalism, unless specifically designed for exterior installation. A few manufacturers make such models. The advantages and disadvantages of IP controllers apply to the IP readers as well. The most common security risk of intrusion through an access control system is by simply following a legitimate user through a door, and this is referred to as tailgating. Often the legitimate user will hold the door for the intruder.
This risk can be minimized through security awareness training of the user population, or more active means such as turnstiles. The second most common risk is from levering a door open. This is relatively difficult on properly secured doors with strikes or high holding force magnetic locks. Fully implemented access control systems include forced door monitoring alarms. These vary in effectiveness, usually failing from high false positive alarms, poor database configuration, or lack of active intrusion monitoring. The third most common security risk is natural disasters.
In order to mitigate risk from natural disasters, the structure of the building, down to the quality of the network and computer equipment vital. From an organizational perspective, the leadership will need to adopt and implement an All Hazards Plan, or Incident Response Plan. Similar to levering is crashing through cheap partition walls. In shared tenant spaces the divisional wall is a vulnerability. A vulnerability along the same lines is the breaking of sidelights.