Further Reading

Why do I have to complete a CAPTCHA? Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. What can I do to prevent this in the future? If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus further Reading on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware.

If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. US: farther adjadjective: Describes a noun or pronoun–for example, “a tall girl,” “an interesting book,” “a big house. Is it further than that house over there?

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You should leave by the further door. Comets act differently at the farther reaches of the solar system. Describes a verb, adjective, adverb, or clause–for example, “come quickly,” “very rare,” “happening now,” “fall down. I’ll investigate further and get back to you.

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Indagherò ulteriormente e ti farò sapere. Describes a noun or pronoun–for example, “a tall girl,” “an interesting book,” “a big house. I think he’ll need further training. Penso che avrà bisogno di ulteriore allenamento. We’ll need to get further staff to finish this project.


Avremo bisogno di altro personale per terminare questo progetto. US: farther advadverb: Describes a verb, adjective, adverb, or clause–for example, “come quickly,” “very rare,” “happening now,” “fall down. You need to walk further than that if you want some exercise. She can throw a ball farther than her brother can. Devi camminare più lontano se vuoi fare dell’esercizio. Verb taking a direct object–for example, “Say something. She’s dedicated to furthering the cause of the homeless.

Si dedica a promuovere la causa dei senzatetto. And, further, this isn’t his first offence. E inoltre, questa non è la sua prima offesa. UK: further adjadjective: Describes a noun or pronoun–for example, “a tall girl,” “an interesting book,” “a big house. He avoided the reporters and entered a van parked at the farther end of the airport.

Ha evitato i giornalisti ed è entrato in un furgone parcheggiato nel settore più lontano dell’aeroporto. Le comete si comportano in maniera differente nei punti più lontani del sistema solare. Riesce a tirare la palla più lontano di tuo fratello. Phrase with special meaning functioning as verb–for example, “put their heads together,” “come to an end.

Parents can arrange a meeting with the school to discuss the matter further. I genitori possono organizzare una riunione con la scuola per discutere ulteriormente la questione. Prepositional phrase, adverbial phrase, or other phrase or expression–for example, “behind the times,” “on your own. Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. Further action was needed to win the battle. Andavano prese ulteriori misure per poter vincere la battaglia. According to what it says further down, you don’t need to do anything yet.

Many of the teams further down in the standings are losing money. Secondo quanto scritto più in basso, non devi ancora fare nulla. For further information click on the link above. Per maggiori informazioni, fare click sul link in alto.

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Noun always used in plural form–for example, “jeans,” “scissors. The restaurant will be closed until further notice. Il ristorante rimarrà chiuso fino a nuova comunicazione. A little further on, past the church, you’ll come to a roundabout. Un po’ più avanti, oltre la chiesa, si arriva a una rotatoria. Further to your enquiry, I can confirm that tickets are still available. Facendo seguito alla sua richiesta, le confermiamo che i biglietti sono ancora disponibili.

The house we’re looking for is further up the street. La casa che stiamo cercando è più in su sulla strada. Transitive verb with reflexive pronoun–for example, “Enjoy yourself. This year the team went one step further and won both domestic cup competitions.

Quest’anno la squadra ha fatto ancora di più e ha vinto entrambi i trofei locali. Look no further interjinterjection: Exclamation–for example, “Oh no! I have exactly what you need. Ho esattamente quello di cui ha bisogno. Vedi la traduzione automatica di Google Translate di ‘further’.

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Further Reading

Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. An ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons. The coup that overthrew Maximilien Robespierre allowed Tracy to pursue his work. He devised the term for a “science of ideas” he hoped would form a secure foundation for the moral and political sciences. Tracy worked this out during the Napoleonic regime, and Napoleon Bonaparte came to view ‘Ideology’ a term of abuse, which he often hurled against his liberal foes in Tracy’s Institut National. In the century after Tracy, the term ideology moved back and forth between positive and negative connotations. The term “ideology” has dropped some of its pejorative sting, and has become a neutral term in the analysis of differing political opinions and views of social groups.

There has been considerable analysis of different ideological patterns. Some have described this kind of analysis as meta-ideology—the study of the structure, form, and manifestation of ideologies. Recent analysis tends to posit that ideology is a coherent system of ideas that rely on a few basic assumptions about reality that may or may not have any factual basis. Ideologies are patterned clusters of normatively imbued ideas and concepts, including particular representations of power relations. These conceptual maps help people navigate the complexity of their political universe and carry claims to social truth. The works of George Walford and Harold Walsby, done under the heading of systematic ideology, are attempts to explore the relationships between ideology and social systems.

Charles Blattberg offers an account that distinguishes political ideologies from political philosophies. In his work, he strove to bring the concept of ideology into the foreground, as well as the closely connected concerns of epistemology and history. There are many different kinds of ideologies: political, social, epistemological, and ethical. Karl Marx posits that a society’s dominant ideology is integral to its superstructure. György Lukács proposes ideology as a projection of the class consciousness of the ruling class.

The Marxist formulation of “ideology as an instrument of social reproduction” is conceptually important to the sociology of knowledge, viz. Louis Althusser proposed both spiritual and materialistic conception of ideology, which made use of a special type of discourse: the lacunar discourse. A number of propositions, which are never untrue, suggest a number of other propositions, which are. For example, the statement “All are equal before the law,” which is a theoretical groundwork of current legal systems, suggests that all people may be of equal worth or have equal “opportunities”. Althusser also proffered the concept of the ideological state apparatus to explain his theory of ideology. His first thesis was “ideology has no history”: while individual ideologies have histories, interleaved with the general class struggle of society, the general form of ideology is external to history. For Althusser, beliefs and ideas are the products of social practices, not the reverse.

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His thesis that “ideas are material” is illustrated by the “scandalous advice” of Pascal toward unbelievers: “Kneel and pray, and then you will believe. The French Marxist theorist Guy Debord, founding member of the Situationist International, argued that when the commodity becomes the “essential category” of society, i. This section’s factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on Talk:Ideology. The German cultural historian Silvio Vietta described the development and expansion of Western rationality from ancient times onwards as often accompanied by and shaped by ideologies like that of the “just war”, the “true religion”, racism, nationalism, or the vision of future history as a kind of heaven on earth in communism. Hatred: “Mass movements can rise and spread without a God, but never without belief in a devil.

The “ideal devil” is a foreigner. Persuasion: The proselytizing zeal of propagandists derives from “a passionate search for something not yet found more than a desire to bestow something we already have. Coercion: Hoffer asserts that violence and fanaticism are interdependent. People forcibly converted to Islamic or communist beliefs become as fanatical as those who did the forcing.

It takes fanatical faith to rationalize our cowardice. Leadership: Without the leader, there is no movement. Often the leader must wait long in the wings until the time is ripe. He calls for sacrifices in the present, to justify his vision of a breathtaking future. Action: Original thoughts are suppressed, and unity encouraged, if the masses are kept occupied through great projects, marches, exploration and industry. Suspicion: “There is prying and spying, tense watching and a tense awareness of being watched. This pathological mistrust goes unchallenged and encourages conformity, not dissent.

Results indicate that where people live is likely to closely correlate with their ideological beliefs. There are many proposed methods for the classification of political ideologies, each of these different methods generate a specific political spectrum. A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends power should be used. Some parties follow a certain ideology very closely, while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without specifically embracing any one of them. Post 1991, many commentators claim that we are living in a post-ideological age, in which redemptive, all-encompassing ideologies have failed, and this view is often associated with Francis Fukuyama’s writings on “the end of history”.

Slavoj Zizek has pointed out how the very notion of post-ideology can enable the deepest, blindest form of ideology. A sort of false consciousness or false cynicism, engaged in for the purpose of lending one’s point of view the respect of being objective, pretending neutral cynicism, without truly being so. Rather than help avoiding ideology, this lapse only deepens the commitment to an existing one. There are several studies that show that affinity to a specific political ideology is heritable.

When a political ideology becomes a dominantly pervasive component within a government, one can speak of an ideocracy. Different forms of government utilize ideology in various ways, not always restricted to politics and society. Madmen in authority, who hear voices in the air, are distilling their frenzy from some academic scribbler of a few years back”, said John Maynard Keynes. How do ideologies become part of government policy? Even when the challenging of existing beliefs is encouraged, as in scientific theories, the dominant paradigm or mindset can prevent certain challenges, theories, or experiments from being advanced. A special case of science adopted as ideology is that of ecology, which studies the relationships among living things on Earth.

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Some accuse ecological economics of likewise turning scientific theory into political economy, although theses in that science can often be tested. The modern practice of green economics fuses both approaches and seems to be part science, part ideology. This is far from the only theory of economics raised to ideology status. According to the semiotician Bob Hodge, ideology “identifies a unitary object that incorporates complex sets of meanings with the social agents and processes that produced them.

No other term captures this object as well as ‘ideology’. Foucault’s ‘episteme’ is too narrow and abstract, not social enough. Sociologists define ideology as “cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality. Dominant groups use these sets of cultural beliefs and practices to justify the systems of inequality that maintain their group’s social power over non-dominant groups. All that is necessary is for each of us to develop our good human qualities. The need for a sense of universal responsibility affects every aspect of modern life. The nice thing about an ism is how quickly it becomes a wasm.

Other Considerations

The function of ideology is to stabilize and perpetuate dominance through masking or illusion. Levels of Subjective Globalization: Ideologies, Imaginaries, Ontologies”. Perspectives on Global Development and Technology. Life and Works of Antoine Louis Claude, Comte Destutt de Tracy”. Ideology” from Destutt De Tracy to Marx”.

Further Reading

Journal of the History of Ideas. Susan Silbey, “Ideology” at Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology. The Civil War in France”, The Marx-Engels Reader 2nd ed. A Theory of Global Civilization: Rationality and the Irrational as the Driving Forces of History. Eric Hoffer, The True Believer, Harper Perennial, 1951, p. Eric Hoffer, The True Believer, Harper Perennial, 1951, pp.

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Eric Hoffer, The True Believer, Harper Perennial, 1951. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, pg. The End of History and the Last Man. Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences. Genetics and the development of social attitudes. The genetics of voting: An Australian twin study. Is there a ‘party’ in your genes?

Shared reality, system justification, and the relational basis of ideological beliefs. Bob Hodge, “Ideology”, at Semiotics Encyclopedia Online. The Dalai Lama’s Book of Wisdom, edited by Matthew Bunson, Ebury Press, 1997, p. Belloni, Claudio, Per la critica dell’ideologia. Filosofia e storia in Marx, Mimesis, Milano-Udine 2013. Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes.

Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach. Ideology and Political Behavior”, Midwest Journal of Political Science. On the Concept of Ideology in Political Science. The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature New York: Penguin Group. Ideology in Language Use: Pragmatic Guidelines for Empirical Research Cambridge University Press.

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The Sublime Object of Ideology Verso. Look up ideology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. A multi-use community building in south Reading opens its doors. Visitors to Reading’s Town Hall and Museum will notice the exciting transformation work that has started to take shape this month.

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