Frequently Asked Questions¶ have cases of MERS been identified? How do people get infected with the MERS virus?
The MERS virus is transmitted primarily from animals to people, but transmission from people to people is also possible. Scientific evidence suggests that people are infected through direct or indirect contact with infected dromedary camels. Egypt, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Transmission between people has been limited to-date, and has been identified among family members, patients, and health care workers. What are the symptoms of MERS? Pneumonia is common, however some people infected with the MERS virus have been reported to be asymptomatic.
Gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhoea, have also been reported. Some patients have had organ failure, especially of the kidneys, or septic shock. The virus appears to cause more severe disease in people with weakened immune systems, older people, and people with chronic diseases as renal disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic lung disease. No vaccine or specific treatment for MERS is currently available.
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Treatment is supportive and based on a person’s clinical condition. Can someone be infected with MERS-CoV and not be ill? Yes, infection with MERS-CoV can be asymptomatic. Infected people with no symptoms have been identified because they were tested for MERS-CoV during investigations among contacts of people known to be infected with MERS-CoV.
Is it easy to detect people who are infected with MERS-CoV? It is not always possible to identify people infected with the MERS virus because early symptoms of the disease are non-specific and are often mistaken for other respiratory diseases. For this reason, all health care facilities should have standard infection prevention and control practices in place. Yes, but human to human transmission has been limited.
The virus does not seem to pass easily from person to person unless there is close contact, such as occurs when providing unprotected care for a patient. What is contact tracing and why is it important? Those in close contact with someone who has MERS are at higher risk of infection, and of potentially infecting others if they begin to show symptoms. Closely watching such persons for 14 days from the last day of exposure to a confirmed case will help that person to get care and treatment and will prevent further transmission of the virus to others. Contact identification: Once a case is confirmed, contacts are identified by asking about the activities of the case and the activities and roles of the people around the case since onset of illness. Contacts can be family members or anyone who has been in contact with the case, for example, people encountered at work, social events or in health care facilities. Contact listing: All persons considered to have contact with the confirmed case should be listed as contacts.
Efforts should be made to identify every listed contact and inform them of their contact status, what it means, the actions that will follow, and the importance of receiving early care if they develop symptoms. The contact should also be provided with information about prevention of the disease. Contact follow-up: Follow-up all listed contacts daily for 14 days from the last time they were in contact with the confirmed MERS patient for the development of signs and symptoms and for testing for MERS-CoV. If you have had close contact with someone infected with MERS-CoV within the last 14 days without using the recommended infection control precautions, you should contact a healthcare provider for an evaluation. What is the source of the MERS virus? MERS-CoV has been found in dromedary camels in several countries, including in Egypt, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia. It is possible that other animal reservoirs exist.
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However, animals including goats, cows, sheep, water buffalo, swine, and wild birds have been tested for MERS-CoV and the virus has not been found. The origins of the virus are not fully understood but, according to the analysis of different virus genomes, it is believed that MERS-CoV may have originated in bats and was transmitted to camels in the distance past. Should people avoid contact with camels or camel products? Is it safe to visit farms, markets, or camel fairs?
As a general precaution, anyone visiting farms, markets, barns, or other places where animals are present should practice general hygiene measures. These include regular hand-washing before and after touching animals, and avoiding contact with sick animals. The consumption of raw or undercooked animal products, including milk and meat, carries a high risk of infection from a variety of organisms. Animal products processed appropriately through cooking or pasteurization are safe for consumption, but should also be handled with care to avoid cross-contamination with uncooked foods. Camel meat and camel milk are nutritious products that can be consumed after pasteurization, cooking, or other heat treatments.
Until more is understood about MERS-CoV, people with diabetes, renal failure, chronic lung disease, and immunocompromised persons are considered to be at high risk of severe disease from MERS-CoV infection. Especially in the Middle East, this group of people should avoid contact with dromedary camels, consuming raw camel milk or camel urine, as well as eating meat that has not been properly cooked. Workers should also avoid exposing family members to soiled work clothing, shoes, or other items that may have come into contact with camels or camel excretions. Sick animals should never be slaughtered for consumption. Transmission of MERS-CoV has occurred in health care facilities in several countries, most notably in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and the Republic of Korea. It is not always possible to identify patients infected with MERS-CoV early or without testing because symptoms may be mild and other clinical features may be non-specific.
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Droplet precautions should be added to standard precautions when providing care to all patients with symptoms of acute respiratory infection. Contact precautions and eye protection should be added when caring for suspected or confirmed cases of MERS. How is WHO responding to MERS? WHO is working with academic and public health professionals to gather and share scientific evidence to better understand the virus and the disease it causes, and to determine outbreak response priorities, treatment strategies, and clinical management approaches.
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WHO is also coordinating with the affected countries and international health partners to identify the current knowledge gaps on transmission risk factors as well as developing medical countermeasures. Cases should be isolated as soon as possible, and close contacts should be identified and monitored. Health care facilities that provide care for suspected or confirmed MERS patients should take appropriate measure to decrease the risk of transmission of the virus from an infected patient to other patients, health care workers, and visitors. However, national authorities may take precautions aimed at raising awareness of MERS and its symptoms among travellers to and from affected areas, based on their own local risk assessment. If a sick traveller is on board a plane, a passenger locator form can be used.
Advise travelers with pre-existing medical conditions to avoid contact with dromedary camels in the Middle East, and in other countries where infected dromedaries have been identified. Therefore, these people should avoid close contact with animals, particularly dromedaries, when visiting farms, markets, or barn areas where the virus is known to be potentially circulating. Make information known to departing travellers and travel organizations on general travel health precautions, which will lower the risk of infection in general, including illnesses such as influenza and traveller’s diarrhoea. Different kinds of communication, such as health alerts on board planes and ships, and banners, pamphlets, and radio announcements at international points of entry, can also be used to reach travellers.
If clinical presentation suggests the diagnosis of MERS-CoV, laboratory testing in accordance with WHO’s case definition should be done and infection prevention and control measures implemented. Helpful Documents Available In Multiple Languages By clicking on the language links below, you will be taken to a web page offering links to documents translated to different languages. Iowa’s Unemployment Rate Remains at 2. Iowa’s seasonally adjusted unemployment rate remains at 2. The state’s jobless rate was 3. In response to the tornado damage in Pella and Marshalltown, a temporary IowaWORKS Center has opened in Pella and the IowaWORKS Center in Marshalltown will have additional staff available.
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Spitting establishes and upholds social order within the species, and most disputes are resolved at the mere threat of a spit. Llamas, like cattle, sheep, goats and deer, have only lower incisors, and so biting is an inadequate defense. Males do grow fang-like canine teeth for fighting rival males at about two years of age, and these are usually removed for both herd and handler safety. What do you do with them? The South Americans use llamas as beasts of burden, a secondary wool source, and even burn droppings as fuel. Llamas are only eaten in South America when they become to old and infirm to work.
In North America, classic llamas serve as pack animals and are also driven hitched to carts and other vehicles patterned after those traditionally used with equines. The point of making more llamas is to only make more of those llamas who can perform one or more of the aforementioned tasks. What special words are used to denote age and sex? A young llama under one year of age who has been weaned is a weanling. Year-old llamas are yearlings, and beyond that age, there is no specific English terminology other than adult, when the llama reaches four years of age. Old zoo literature may refer to baby llamas as “calves.
The term “sire” refers only to the father of a specific llama and is often misued within the llama industry. German veterinary literature may refer to female llamas as “llama mares. Although “breed,” in the strictest sense of the word, is applied only to a population that reproduces entirely true-to-type, breeds are in fact in constant evolution. North American breeders mixed them up, with predictable consequences — mutts that are only mediocre at best for packing and fiber production.
Current North American breeders have defined types and are definitely on their way to re-creating pre-existing llama breeds, but with North Americans’ needs and demands in mind. How many are in North America? One estimate is over 250,000 as of 2000 — that’s quite an increase over the estimate of 8000 in 1985. Importation was banned in the 1930s and reopened on a limited basis in 1983. It is an extremely difficult and very costly process. You can imagine that when there weren’t very many llamas in North America, prices were very high regardless of quality. First, some important background information: Except for those individual llamas that achieve self-actualization through guarding another species, the vast majority of llamas are notably stressed or become problematic unless they live with another llama.
This certainly increases the initial purchase price. 2000 depending on wool type, color, training, and show potential. Woolly llamas can indeed be shorn. Shearing to the skin leaves the llama vulnerable to sun, rain, cold and insects. Hand shearing, leaving about one-half to one inch of the woolly variety’s dense coat for protection, is preferred in most areas. A woolly llama can yield five to ten pounds of wool per year.
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There is no large commercial market for the fiber at present. The weather resistance of the lighter- and sparser-wooled classic llama is compromised by shearing: The protective guard hairs, which shed water and keep out debris, are rendered ineffective when cut to the same length as the wool, and the relatively sparse undercoat is inadequate for protection from the elements. The two-fibered fleece is more difficult to prepare and also has a much lower yield. Shearing does not allow the dense-coated, woolly llamas to pack or drive and remain adequately cooled unless they are shorn to the skin, a practice that produces it’s own problems. Do you have to shear them? Woolly llamas and those densely-wooled llamas that result from crossing the two types are much healthier when shorn yearly.
Shearing true classic llamas is not necessary nor desirable. Their wool is too short and sparse to interfere significantly with cooling if regularly brushed and combed. Shearing pack llamas is particularly risky because it leaves them vulnerable to the elements, and there is never guaranteed access to shelter in the backcountry. What colors do they come in? Technically speaking, ALL mammals come only in brown — the variations we see, including the genetically distinct colors and white, are merely the result of greater or lesser pigment clumping. Although you may hear of “brown” lamas, geneticists reserve the term “brown” to describe a very specific type of pigment .
Colors and white can be arranged in many patterns. The most common fixed patterns are pointing, original type, appaloosa. Pointing results in black, grey, or silver points on the face and legs. It is only visible on red or its derivatives. The term “bay,” the colloquial name for a red horse with black points, is not appropriate for describing pointing because the pointing gene also appears with orange and fawn, ruddy and salmon.
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Original type looks much like the wild guanaco ancestor, with a lighter color on the belly and insides of legs, usually up the front of the neck, and also usually under the chin and in a line along the cheeks to the ears. In appaloosa patterns, spots of color appear on a ground of another color or what appears to be white. The spots are variable in size from animal to animal: the spots may be so small that the llama appears to be entirely the ground color, or so large that the llama appears to be entirely the spot color. Reverse appaloosa” is a colloquial term for when the spots are very large but still allow some of the ground color to be seen. Both solid colors and fixed patterns may be overlain with pattern white, the dominant white gene responsible for most white markings in llamas.
To make an educated assessment of a llama’s actual color, you’ll need to part the coat to the skin. Llamas are not as hefty as they appear and none are usable for pleasure riding by adults. An exceptionally well-built and well-conditioned pack llama can be trained to carry a lightweight adult in case of emergency. A well-trained, responsive gelding led by an adult makes a highly satisfactory trail mount for a child. Because of llamas’ intelligence and highly flexible, strong necks, they can easily avoid responding to directions and so allowing small children to ride a llama controlled by reins alone is unwise under most circumstances.