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Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. The origins of the Camorra are not entirely clear. It may date back to the 17th century as a direct Italian descendant of a Spanish secret society, the Garduña, founded in 1417. The first official use of the word dates from 1735, when a royal decree authorised the establishment of eight gambling houses in Naples. The Camorra first emerged during the chaotic power vacuum in the years between 1799 and 1815, when the Parthenopean Republic was proclaimed on the wave of the French Revolution and the Bourbon Restoration. Another qualitative leap was the agreement of the liberal opposition and the Camorra, following the defeat in the 1848 revolution. Following Italian unification in 1861 attempts were made to tackle the Camorra and a series of manhunts were made from 1882 on.
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The original low camorra held sway over the poor plebs in an age of abjection and servitude. Then there arose a high camorra comprising the most cunning and audacious members of the middle class. They fed off trade and public works contracts, political meetings and government bureaucracy. This high camorra strikes deals and does business with the low camorra, swapping promises for favours and favours for promises. However, whether the “high Camorra” was an integral part of the Camorra proper is disputed. Although the inquiry did not prove specific collusion between the Camorra and politics, it brought to light the patronage mechanisms that fueled corruption in the municipality. Most of the defendants are in the large cage.
Ciro Vitozzi, Maria Stendardo, the only female defendant, and Enrico Alfano. In the small cage to the right is the crown witness Gennaro Abbatemaggio. The Camorra was never a coherent whole nor a centralised organization. Instead, it has always been a loose confederation of different, independent groups or families.
Each group was bound around kinship ties and controlled economic activities which took place in its particular territory. Each family clan took care of its own business, protected its territory, and sometimes tried to expand at another group’s expense. One of the Camorra’s strategies to gain social prestige is political patronage. The family clans became the preferred interlocutors of local politicians and public officials, because of their grip on the community. In turn, the family bosses used their political sway to assist and protect their clients against the local authorities.
Compared to the Sicilian Mafia’s pyramidal structure, the Camorra has more of a ‘horizontal’ than a ‘vertical’ structure. As a result, individual Camorra clans act independently of each other, and are more prone to feuding among themselves. This however makes the Camorra more resilient when top leaders are arrested or killed, with new clans and organizations germinating out of the stumps of old ones. In 1983, Italian law enforcement estimated that there were only about a dozen Camorra clans. By 1987, the number had risen to 26, and in the following year, a report from the Naples flying squad reported their number as 32. Currently it is estimated there are about 111 Camorra clans and over 6,700 members in Naples and the immediate surroundings. In 2004 and 2005 the Di Lauro clan and the so-called Scissionisti di Secondigliano fought a bloody feud which came to be known in the Italian press as the Scampia feud.
The result was over 100 street killings. In 2001 the businessman Domenico Noviello from Caserta testified against a Camorra extortionist and subsequently received police protection. In 2008 he refused further protection and was killed one week later. In recent years, various Camorra clans have been forming alliances with Nigerian drug gangs and the Albanian mafia, even going so far as to intermarry. Since the mid-1990s, the Camorra has taken over the handling of refuse disposal in the region of Campania, with disastrous results for the environment and the health of the general population.
With the assistance of private businessmen known as “stakeholders”, the numerous Camorra clans are able to gain massive profits from under-the-table contracts with local, legitimate businesses. These “stakeholders” are able to offer companies highly lucrative deals to remove their waste at a significantly lower price. With little to no overhead, Camorra clans and their associates see very high profit margins. As of June 2007, the region has no serviceable dumping sites, and no alternatives have been found. Together with corrupt local officials and unscrupulous industrialists from all over Italy, the Camorra has created a cartel that has so far proven very difficult for officials to combat.
In November 2013 a demonstration by tens of thousands of people was held in Naples in protest against the pollution caused by the Camorra’s control of refuse disposal. The Camorra has proven to be an extremely difficult organization to fight within Italy. 12, Captain Carlo Fabroni of the Carabinieri gave testimony on how complicated it was to successfully prosecute the Camorra: “The Camorrist has no political ideals. The trial that investigated the murder of the camorrista Gennaro Cuocolo was followed with great interest by the newspapers and the general public. Unlike the Sicilian Mafia, which has a clear hierarchy and a division of interests, the Camorra’s activities are much less centralized. This makes the organization much more difficult to combat through crude repression.
In Campania, where unemployment is high and opportunities are limited, the Camorra has become an integral part of the fabric of society. The government has made an effort to combat the Camorra’s criminal activities in Campania. The solution ultimately lies in Italy’s ability to offer values, education and work opportunities to the next generation. However, the government has been hard pressed to find funds for promoting long term reforms that are needed to improve the local economic outlook and create jobs.
Despite the overwhelming magnitude of the problem, law enforcement officials continue their pursuit. The Italian police are coordinating their efforts with Europol at the European level as well as Interpol to conduct special operations against the Camorra. In 1998, police took a leading Camorra figure into custody. Francesco Schiavone was caught hiding in a secret apartment near Naples behind a sliding wall of granite.
The mayor of Naples, Antonio Bassolino, compared the arrest to that of Sicilian Mafia chief Salvatore Riina in 1993. Michele Zagaria, a senior member of the Casalesi clan, was arrested in 2011 after eluding police for 16 years. He was found in a secret bunker in the town Casapesenna, near Naples. In 2014, clan boss Mario Riccio was arrested for drug trafficking in the Naples area. Around the same time 29 suspected Camorra members were also arrested in Rome.
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The arrests in the Campania region demonstrate that the police are not allowing the Camorra to operate without intervention. However, progress remains slow, and these minor victories have done little to loosen the Camorra’s grip on Naples and the surrounding regions. In 2008, Italian police arrested three members of the Camorra crime syndicate on September 30, 2008. According to Gianfrancesco Siazzu, commander of the Carabinieri police, the three were captured in small villas on the coast of Naples.
All three had been on Italy’s 100 top most wanted list. Scotland has had its brush with the Camorra. Antonio La Torre of Aberdeen was the local “Don” of the Camorra. He is the brother of Camorra boss Augusto La Torre of the La Torre clan which had its base in Mondragone, Caserta. Two Aberdeen restaurateurs, Ciro Schiattarella and Michele Siciliano, were extradited to Italy for their part in the “Aberdeen Camorra”. A fourth Scottish associate made history by becoming the first foreign member of the Camorra and is currently serving a jail sentence in the UK.
It has been reported that he also receives a monthly salary, legal assistance and protection. Saviano alleges that from the 1980s, Italian gangsters ran a network of lucrative businesses in the city as well as many illegal rackets. Saviano said Scotland’s third city, with no history of organized crime, was seen as an attractive safe haven away from the violent inter-gang bloodletting that had engulfed their Neapolitan stronghold of Mondragone. Saviano claims that before the Italian clans arrived, Aberdeen did not know how to exploit its resources for recreation and tourism. The hub of La Torre’s UK empire, Pavarotti’s restaurant, now under different ownership, was even feted at Italissima, a prestigious gastronomic fair held in Paris.
The restaurant was even advertised on the city’s local tourist guides. Saviano further claims to have gone to Aberdeen and worked in a restaurant run by Antonio La Torre. The Camorristas operated a system known as “scratch” where they used to step up illegal activities if their legitimate ventures were struggling. However, the suggestion that the city remains in the grip of mobsters has been strongly denied by leaders of the 300 strong Italian community in Aberdeen.
Moreover, Giuseppe Baldini, the Italian government’s vice-consul in Aberdeen, denies that the Camorra still maintains its presence in Aberdeen. The Camorra existed in the United States between the mid-19th century and early 20th century. They rivaled the defunct Morello crime family for power in New York. Many Camorra members and associates fled the internecine gang warfare and Italian Justice and immigrated to the United States in the 1980s. In 1993, the FBI estimated that there were 200 camorristi in the United States.
In the 1970s, the Sicilian Mafia convinced the Camorra to convert their cigarette smuggling routes into drug smuggling routes with the Sicilian Mafia’s assistance. Not all Camorra leaders agreed, leading to the Camorra Wars that cost 400 lives. Opponents of drug trafficking lost the war. The Camorra made a fortune in reconstruction after an earthquake ravaged the Campania region in 1980. These bills would then be transported to the Russian Mafia for distribution in 29 post-Eastern Bloc countries and former Soviet republics.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Camorra is a 1972 film, directed by Pasquale Squitieri, starring Fabio Testi and Jean Seberg. Commendatori”, an episode of The Sopranos which features the Camorra. Vaguely inspired by the real story of NCO boss, Raffaele Cutolo. Cutolo is played by Ben Gazzara, with the Italian voiceover done by Italian actor Mariano Rigillo. Roberto Saviano’s 2006 book Gomorra investigates the activities of the Camorra in Italy, especially in the Provinces of Naples and Caserta. Marco Risi about the brief life and death of journalist Giancarlo Siani, murdered by camorrisiti from the Nuvoletta clan.
The opera I gioielli della Madonna by Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari features the Camorra as part of the plot. In the Japanese light novel series and anime Baccano! Camorra group known as the Martillo Family, and become quite insulted if they are mistaken for the Mafia. Elena Ferrante’s four Neapolitan novels are concerned with the damage done by the Camorra portrayed as the two Solara brothers. Roberta’s Blood Trail” arc, a man called Tomazo makes his appearance.
Tomazo is on the side of the Italian mob leader Ronnie the jaws. Later it is revealed that Tomazo is a member of the Camorra, and his surname Falcone as well. In John Wick: Chapter 2, main antagonist Santino D’Antonio is a member of the Camorra. In the short story “The Fate of Faustina” by E.
Hornung, it is revealed that the main character and criminal-in-hiding A. Raffles has made an enemy of a high-level member of the Camorra from his time spent in Italy. Mafia and Mafia-type organizations in Italy Archived October 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Interview with historian Hipólito Sánchiz Archived 2011-07-14 at the Wayback Machine.
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Purity, Time Magazine, July 30, 1923 Archived August 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Camorra, alle radici del male, Narcomafie on line, October 29, 2001 Archived March 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Sales, La camorra, le camorre, pp. Di Fiore, Potere camorrista: quattro secoli di malanapoli, p.
La lobby di piazza Municipio: gli impiegati comunali nella Napoli di fine Ottocento, by Giulio Machetti, Meridiana, pp. Man who took on the Mafia: The truth about Italy’s gangsters”. Mit mehr Polizei gegen die Camorra”. Why Does the Mob Want to Erase This Writer?
Roberto Saviano on the Italian Camorra”. Archived from the original on October 1, 2009. BBC News – Naples rally against mafia’s toxic waste dumping”. Analysis: Naples, a city in the grip of the Camorra”.
Camorra boss Michele Zagaria caught after police break into underground bunker”. Italy Camorra mafia clan boss Mario Riccio arrested”. Italy arrests scores of suspected mobsters”. Comorra: 60 arresti tra Campania e Lombardia, anche 16 Giudici Tributari”.
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Camorra: sequestrato a Milano il Gran Caffe’ Sforza”. Camorra, sequestrati beni per 20 milioni. Anche un bar in centro a Milano”. L’ombra della Camorra in Emilia Truffa e riciclaggio: 11 indagati”. He insists he’s just a normal businessman living quietly with his wife and children in Aberdeen. So why are Italian police so convinced Antonio la Torre is really a ruthless mafia don? Dons on the Don: Aberdeen revealed as the British power base for Italy’s most deadly crime family”.
The Global Underworld: Transnational Crime and the United States. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to the Mafia. Transnational Criminal Organizations, Cybercrime, and Money Laundering. United States Department of the Treasury. Camorra, arrestato l’assassino del giornalista Siani”. Credibility in Court: Communicative Practices in the Camorra Trials. The Two Sicilies and the Camorra”.
An American Lawyer at the Camorra Trial”. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Camorra. Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Camorra. California, Florida, Louisiana, Ohio, Illinois, St.
Americans who have ancestry from Italy. 5 million Italians immigrated to the United States from 1820 to 2004. Further immigration was greatly limited by several laws Congress passed in the 1920s. Italian immigrants came from the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Italian navigators and explorers played a key role in the exploration and settlement of the Americas by Europeans.
Another notable Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, who explored the east coast of South America between 1499 and 1502, is the source of the name America. In 1539, Marco da Nizza, explored the territory that later became the states of Arizona and New Mexico. The first Italian to reside in America was Pietro Cesare Alberti, a Venetian seaman who, in 1635, settled in what would eventually become New York City. The first Waldensians began arriving around 1640, with the majority coming between 1654 and 1663. De Tonti founded the first European settlement in Illinois in 1679, and in Arkansas in 1683. Spain and France were Catholic countries and sent many missionaries to convert the native population.
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Included among these missionaries were numerous Italians. In 1519-25, Alessandro Geraldini was the first Catholic bishop in the Americas, at Santo Domingo. The Taliaferro family, originally from Venice, was one of the first families to settle in Virginia, while the Fonda family settled in present-day upstate New York, establishing the town of Fonda. Another colonial, merchant Francis Ferrari of Genoa, was naturalized as a citizen of Rhode Island in 1752.
He died in 1753 and in his will mentions Genoa, his ownership of three ships, cargo of wine and his wife Mary. Burtis, Taliaferro, Fonda, Reggio and other early families are found all across the United States. This period saw a small stream of new arrivals from Italy. Some brought skills in agriculture and the making of glass, silk and wine, while others brought skills as musicians.
85 Filippo Mazzei, a physician and promoter of liberty, was a close friend and confidant of Thomas Jefferson. He published a pamphlet containing the phrase: “All men are by nature equally free and independent”, which Jefferson incorporated essentially intact into the Declaration of Independence. Italian Americans served in the American Revolutionary War both as soldiers and officers. Three regiments, totaling some 1,500 men, fought for American independence.
Boston where, in the first half of the century, organist Charles Nolcini and conductor Louis Ostinelli were also active. During this period Italian explorers continued to be active in the West. 91 Alessandro Malaspina mapped much of the west coast of the Americas, from Cape Horn to the Gulf of Alaska. Joseph Rosati was named the first Catholic bishop of St.
64 Samuel Mazzuchelli, a missionary and expert in Indian languages, ministered to European colonists and Native Americans in Wisconsin and Iowa for 34 years and, after his death, was declared Venerable by the Catholic Church. Missionaries of the Jesuit and Franciscan orders were active in many parts of America. Italian Jesuits founded numerous missions, schools and two colleges in the west. In 1849 Francesco, de Casale began publishing the Italian American newspaper “L’Eco d’Italia” in New York, the first of many to eventually follow. In 1848 Francis Ramacciotti, piano string inventor and manufacturer, immigrated to the U.