Jump to navigation Jump to search “Zoonotic” redirects here. Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans in the early part cryptosporidiosis in Cats the 20th century, though it has now evolved to a separate human-only disease.
Zoonoses have different modes of transmission. The most significant zoonotic pathogens causing foodborne diseases are Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, Caliciviridae, and Salmonella. In 2006, a conference held in Berlin was focusing on the issue of zoonotic pathogen effects on food safety, urging governments to intervene, and the public to be vigilant towards the risks of catching food-borne diseases from farm-to-dining table. Many food outbreaks can be linked to zoonotic pathogens. Many different types of food can be contaminated that have an animal origin. Some common foods linked to zoonotic contaminations include eggs, seafood, meat, dairy, and even some vegetables. Food outbreaks should be handled in preparedness plans to prevent widespread outbreaks and to efficiently and effectively contain outbreaks.
Contact with farm animals can lead to disease in farmers or others that come into contact with infected animals. Glanders primarily affects those who work closely with horses and donkeys. Pets can transmit a number of diseases. Dogs and cats are routinely vaccinated against rabies. Pets can also transmit ringworm and Giardia, which are endemic in both animal and human populations.
Outbreaks of zoonoses have been traced to human interaction with and exposure to animals at fairs, petting zoos, and other settings. However, scientists believe most infections are spread human to human. During most of human prehistory groups of hunter-gatherers were probably very small. Such groups probably made contact with other such bands only rarely. Many modern diseases, even epidemic diseases, started out as zoonotic diseases. Zoonoses are of interest because they are often previously unrecognized diseases or have increased virulence in populations lacking immunity.
The West Nile virus appeared in the United States in 1999 in the New York City area, and moved through the country in the summer of 2002, causing much distress. A major factor contributing to the appearance of new zoonotic pathogens in human populations is increased contact between humans and wildlife. This can be caused either by encroachment of human activity into wilderness areas or by movement of wild animals into areas of human activity. Similarly, in recent times avian influenza and West Nile virus have spilled over into human populations probably due to interactions between the carrier host and domestic animals. Highly mobile animals such as bats and birds may present a greater risk of zoonotic transmission than other animals due to the ease with which they can move into areas of human habitation. The first vaccine against smallpox by Edward Jenner in 1800 was by infection of a zoonotic bovine virus which caused a disease called cowpox. Jenner had noticed that milkmaids were resistant to smallpox.
Milkmaids contracted a milder version of the disease from infected cows that conferred cross immunity to the human disease. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World”. Risk factors for human disease emergence”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.
Confusion over the origin of the virus and the origin of the epidemics”. Campylobacters as zoonotic pathogens: A food production perspective”. Introduction: emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in the zoonotic foodborne pathogens Salmonella and Campylobacter”. The Threat Posed by the Global Emergence of Livestock, Food-borne, and Zoonotic Pathogens”.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Avian flu: Poultry to be allowed outside under new rules”. Prevention, CDC – Centers for Disease Control and. Toxoplasmosis – General Information – Pregnant Women”.
Compendium of Measures To Prevent Disease Associated with Animals in Public Settings, 2005: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. Information in this table is largely compiled from: World Health Organization. Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health”. Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife”. The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses”. One Health: Science, Politics and Zoonotic Disease in Africa.
Infectious Diseases Transmissible from Animals to Humans. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. Infection Risk and Limitation of Fundamental Rights by Animal-To-Human Transplantations. Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zoonoses.
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Look up zoonosis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Human granulocytic, Human monocytotropic, Human E. You can visit our cookie privacy page for more information. Zoonoses All farm animals naturally carry a range of diseases, some of which can also affect humans. These diseases are known as zoonoses, and if you work with animals your health may be at risk from them.
Diseases transmitted from animals to humans can also affect visitors to farms – especially children or the elderly, who are more vulnerable to infection. Hand gels should not be used as an alternative for cleaning hands. Anthrax is an extremely rare but potentially life threatening bacterial disease that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or animal products. Avian influenza is a disease of birds.
Exposure may occur in those who are in close contact with infected birds or who work with materials or products from infected birds. Clinical symptoms are similar to other forms of TB. Human cases are very rare in the UK. Transmission is most commonly via contact with infected animals or ingestion of unpasteurised milk or milk products.
Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of infectious diarrhoea in the UK. It mostly affects very young children and the elderly. Cryptosporidiosis is an infectious diarrhoeal disease. It can be transmitted via contact with infected animals.
It can be spread from person to person where there is poor hygiene. O157 is a bacterium that lives in the gut of animals. It can be transmitted via contact with infected animals or their faeces, and can cause illness ranging from diarrhoea to kidney failure in humans. In some cases the illness can be fatal. Young children and the elderly are at the greatest risk. Erysipeloid is a rare bacterial skin condition.
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It can be acquired from a wide range of infected animals. Giardiasis is a diarrhoeal disease caused by a parasite. The disease is spread via the ingestion of contaminated water or food, or by direct contact with infected animals or humans. Hantavirus infections are caused by a group of viruses which are carried by rodents.
It is generally spread via contact with urine, faeces or saliva from infected rodents. It can be transmitted to humans via infected dog faeces. Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection found worldwide, of which there are two forms: Weil’s disease is most commonly acquired from water contaminated with rat urine. Hardjo is similar to Weil’s disease but is generally caught from infected cattle. Louping ill is a viral infection of which affects sheep and grouse in the UK. It very rarely causes disease in humans.
Lyme disease is a potentially serious bacterial infection transmitted via tick bites. Ticks are common in forested areas, heathland, moorland and suburban parks. Newcastle disease is a highly contagious disease of birds, but is very rare in humans in the UK. It can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected birds or their products.
Orf is a skin disease of sheep and goats caused by a virus. It can spread to humans who are in close contact with infected animals. It causes localised lesions on the skin and is not a serious disease. Ovine chlamydiosis is a bacterial disease acquired from infected sheep or goats. In most humans it leads to a mild flu-like disease, but in pregnant women it can cause a severe life-threatening disease in the mother and lead to stillbirth or miscarriage of the unborn child. It can be transmitted to humans by breathing in infected material or occasionally by oral infection.
Q fever is a bacterial disease. In most people it only causes a mild flu-like illness, but it can lead to more severe disease. Rabies is a very rare but acute viral infection. The virus is transmitted via an animal bite, scratch or lick, generally from a dog in the case of classical rabies and from a bat in the case of bat rabies. Ringworm is a fungal skin disease of humans and other animals. It causes a characteristic ring-like red rash on the skin, which is not usually serious.
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Salmonella bacteria usually cause a mild, self-limiting diarrhoeal disease, although it can occasionally be severe. It is most commonly transmitted via food, but can also be found in faecally-contaminated soil or water. Streptococcus suis is a bacterium that causes disease in pigs. It is generally spread from pigs to humans by direct contact, with the bacteria entering the body through cuts or abrasions in the skin.
Streptococcus zooepidemicus is a bacterium that infects cattle and horses. It is a very rare human disease but can acquired by direct contact with infected animals. For most healthy people there are no disease symptoms or mild flu-like symptoms. However, it can be a serious disease in pregnant or immunocompromised people. West Nile virus infects birds and is spread to humans and horses via a bite from an infected mosquito. Transmission to humans in the UK is very rare.
HSE aims to reduce work-related death, injury and ill health. Ascaridia galli – Causes ascariasis in poultry. Large roundworm of pigs – Ascaris suum. Cylicocyclus nassatus – Disease in horses. Moose sickness – caused by P.
Disease in horses, cattle, deer, missing disease in sheep. Dioctophyma renale – Giant kidney worm. Elaeophora schneideri – Disease in sheep, goats, elk, moose. Disease in dogs, horses, cattle, missing info in poultry. Habronema – Stomach worm in horses. Haemonchus contortus – Disease in sheep and goats. Disease in cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs.
Muellerius capillaris – disease in sheep, goats and wild ruminants. Dicrocoelium dendriticum – AKA Lancet liver fluke. Fasciola gigantica – Disease in cattle, sheep, goats, etc. Fasciola hepatica – Disease in cattle and sheep.
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Fascioloides magna – Disease in cattle, sheep, goats, other ruminants. Babesia divergens – Redwater fever in cattle. Blackhead disease – Disease in poultry caused by Histomonas meleagridis. Short stub, also written in 2nd person. Coccidia – Describes some diseases in dogs, cats, and cattle, many others missing. Covering sickness – AKA dourine, caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum, disease in horses, short stub. Have a feeling that image isn’t free, needs better references.
Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis – Disease in horses. Histomonas meleagridis – Disease, including blackhead disease, in poultry. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis – Ich in fish. Leukocytozoon andrewsi – Disease in chickens. Plasmodium gallinaceum – Malaria in poultry. Surra – Disease in various species. Ceratomyxa shasta – Monogenea disease in salmonids.
Henneguya zschokkei – Myxosporean disease in salmonids. Kudoa thyrsites – Myxosporean disease in fish. Myxobolus cerebralis – Whirling disease in salmonids. Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae – Proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. Whipworm – Some discussion of the disease in dogs and cats, missing info on cattle, sheep, goats, pigs. Dipylidium caninum – Has a little info on cats. Echinococcus granulosus – Has a little info on dogs.
Giardia lamblia – Discusses disease in dogs, cats, cattle, and sheep. These may link to existing articles, just no vet med info present. Strongyloides – Threadworms in various species. Oxyuris equi – Disease in horses. Capillaria plica – Urinary tract parasite in dogs and cats. Dracunculus insignis – Disease in dogs.
Eyeworm – Thelazia, disease in various species. Nematodirus – Disease in cattle and sheep. Oesophagostomum – Disease in cattle, sheep, and pigs. Ollulanus tricuspis – Disease in cats. Onchocerciasis – Disease in horses and cattle. Pelodera – AKA Rhabditic dermatitis in various species. Spirocerca lupi – Esophageal parasite of dogs.
Eurytrema – Pancreatic fluke, disease cattle, sheep, and pigs. Paragonimus – Lung flukes in dogs and cats. Amebiasis – Disease in dogs and cats. Besnoitiosis – Disease in various species.