Cryptococcal antigen screening by lay cadres using a rapid test at the point of care: A feasibility study in rural Lesotho

Cryptococcal antigen screening by lay cadres using a rapid test at the point of care: A feasibility study in rural Lesotho this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC. CDC’s lead group for preventing illness and death from fungal diseases in the United States and throughout the world.

We are one of the only public health groups in the world devoted to the prevention and control of fungal diseases. We work with partners to understand who gets fungal infections and why by using epidemiology and microbiology research. Increasing number of people with weakened immune systems. Advancements and changes in healthcare practices. Hospital-associated infections such as candidemia are a major concern in the United States. Advancements and changes in healthcare practices can allow new and drug-resistant fungi to emerge in healthcare settings. Weather and climate changes may be affecting these types of fungi.

Mycotic Diseases Branch Teams Our branch has three teams. Helping prepare healthcare facilities and laboratories in resource-limited countries to better detect fungal diseases. The Fungal Reference Laboratory uses conventional and molecular methods to identify fungal isolates. We accept specimens from US state and international public health laboratories. Click here for specimen submission information. The Antifungal Testing Laboratory performs antifungal susceptibility testing on special populations of fungal isolates.

We conduct surveillance studies to look for the presence and the proportions of fungal organisms that are resistant to antifungal drugs and to determine the mechanisms of resistance. The Fungal Serology Laboratory uses antibody-based testing to detect exposure to fungal pathogens. We also conduct research into novel serologic testing methods. Fungal Disease Outbreaks When fungal disease outbreaks occur, our branch works with federal, state, local and territorial, and international public health officials and other partners.

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We aim to determine the cause, reduce illness and deaths, and learn how to prevent future outbreaks. Click here to learn more about recent fungal disease outbreaks. International Activities Our branch has assisted in the onsite development, execution, analysis, and publication of numerous studies all over the globe. For more information about our international work, please visit our Global Fungal Diseases web page. Publications Sharing scientific findings is an important part of the prevention and control of fungal diseases.

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Our branch is involved in producing numerous articles and papers which detail our research findings and investigations. 2018 Armstrong PA, Jackson BR, Haselow D, Fields V, Ireland M, Austin C, et al. Multistate Epidemiology of Histoplasmosis, United States, 2011-2014. Avery RK, Silveira FP, Benedict K, Cleveland AA, Kauffman CA, Schuster MG, et al. Study: a Multi-Year, Multi-Center Prospective Cohort Study. Benedict K, Ireland M, Weinberg MP, Gruninger RJ, Weigand J, Chen L, et al. Enhanced Surveillance for Coccidioidomycosis, 14 US States, 2016.

Benedict K, Roy M, Kabbani S, Anderson EJ, Farley MM, Harb S, et al. Neonatal and Pediatric Candidemia: Results From Population-Based Active Laboratory Surveillance in Four US Locations, 2009-2015. Berkow EL, Nunnally NS, Bandea A, Kuykendall R, Beer K, Lockhart SR. L98H Cyp51A mutation through passive surveillance for azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in the US, 2015-2017. Cáceres DH, Samayoa BE, Medina NG, Tobón AM, Guzmán BJ, Mercado D, et al. AIDS in two Latin American countries.

Caceres DH, Tobon AM, Restrepo A, Chiller T, Gomez BL. Chow NA, Gade L, Batra D, Rowe LA, Juieng P, Loparev VN, Litvintseva AP. Genome Sequence of the Amphotericin B-Resistant Candida duobushaemulonii Strain B09383. Chow NA, Gade L, Batra D, Rowe LA, Juieng P, Ben-Ami R, Loparev VN, Litvintseva AP. Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Candida haemulonii Isolate from a Patient with Chronic Leg Ulcers in Israel. Dubberke ER, Reske KA, Olsen MA, Bommarito K, Cleveland AA, Silveira FP, et al.

Epidemiology and Outcomes of Clostridium difficile Infection in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell and Lung Transplant Recipients. Escandon P, Caceres DH, Espinosa-Bode A, Rivera S, Armstrong P, Vallabhaneni S, et al. Escandon P, Chow NA, Caceres DH, Gade L, Berkow EL, Armstrong P, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Candida auris in Colombia reveals a highly-related, country-wide colonization with regional patterns in Amphotericin B resistance. Ford N, Shubber Z, Jarvis JN, Chiller T, Greene G, Migone C, et al.

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CD4 Cell Count Threshold for Cryptococcal Antigen Screening of HIV-Infected Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Coccidioidomycosis Outbreaks, United States and Worldwide, 1940-2015. Goodman AL, Lockhart SR, Lysen CB, Westblade LF, Burnham CD, Burd EM. Two cases of fungal keratitis caused by Metarhizium anisopliae. Hashemi MM, Rovig J, Holden BS, Taylor MF, Weber S, Wilson J, et al. Ceragenins are active against drug-resistant Candida auris clinical isolates in planktonic and biofilm forms.

Iverson WO, Karanth S, Wilcox A, Pham CD, Lockhart SR, Nicholson SM. Lamoth F, Lockhart SR, Berkow EL, Calandra T. Changes in the epidemiological landscape of invasive candidiasis. Echinocandin resistance among Candida isolates at an academic medical centre 2005-15: analysis of trends and outcomes. Ramos R, Caceres DH, Perez M, Garcia N, Castillo W, Santiago E, et al. Emerging multidrug-resistant Candida duobushaemulonii infections in Panama hospitals: importance of laboratory surveillance and accurate identification. Reich P, Shute T, Lysen C, Lockhart SR, Kelly Keating M, Custer P, et al.

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Saksenaea vasiformis Orbital Cellulitis in an Immunocompetent Child Treated With Posaconazole. Reichert Lima F, Lyra L, Pontes L, Moretti ML, Pham CD, Lockhart SR, et al. Surveillance for azoles resistance in Aspergillus spp. Resendiz Sharpe A, Lagrou K, Meis JF, Chowdhary A, Lockhart SR, Verweij PE, et al. Triazole resistance surveillance in Aspergillus fumigatus. Dating the Cryptococcus gattii Dispersal to the North American Pacific Northwest. Sexton DJ, Bentz ML, Welsh RM, Litvintseva AP.

Evaluation of a new T2 Magnetic Resonance assay for rapid detection of emergent fungal pathogen Candida auris on clinical skin swab samples. Tartof SY, Benedict K, Xie F, Rieg GK, Yu KC, Contreras R, et al. Testing for Coccidioidomycosis among Community-Acquired Pneumonia Patients, Southern California, USA. Vu K, Thompson GR 3rd, Roe CC, Sykes JE, Dreibe EM, Lockhart SR, et al. Flucytosine resistance in Cryptococcus gattii is indirectly mediated by the FCY2-FCY1-FUR1 pathway. Walker TA, Lockhart SR, Beekmann SE, Polgreen PM, Santibanez S, Mody RK, et al. Recognition of Azole-Resistant Aspergillosis by Physicians Specializing in Infectious Diseases, United States.

Isolation of Candida auris from nine patients in Central America: Importance of accurate diagnosis and susceptibility testing. Armstrong PA, Beard JD, Bonilla L, Arboleda N, Lindsley MD, Chae S, et al. Benedict K, Richardson M, Vallabhaneni S, Jackson BR, Chiller T. Emerging issues, challenges, and changing epidemiology of fungal disease outbreaks. Berkow EL, Angulo D, Lockhart SR. In Vitro activity of a novel glucan synthase inhibitor, SCY-078, against clinical isolates of Candida auris.

Activity of CD101, a long-acting echinocandin, against clinical isolates of Candida auris. Fluconazole resistance in Candida species: a current perspective. Caceres DH, Zuluaga A, Tabares AM, Chiller T, Gonzalez A, Gomez BL. Evaluation of a Cryptococcal antigen Lateral Flow Assay in serum and cerebrospinal fluid for rapid diagnosis of cryptococcosis in Colombia. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. Chen Y, Farrer RA, Giamberardino C, Sakthikumar S, Jones A, Yang T, et al. Microevolution of Serial Clinical Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans grubii and C.

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Development of an enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibodies against Coccidioides in dogs and other mammalian species. Desjardins CA, Giamberardino C, Sykes SM, Yu CH, Tenor JL, Chen Y, et al. Population genomics and the evolution of virulence in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Dubberke ER, Reske KA, Olsen MA, Bommarito KM, Seiler S, Silveira FP, et al. Risk for Clostridium difficile Infection After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Remains Elevated in the Postengraftment Period Transplant Direct. Ford N, Meintjes G, Vitoria M, Greene G, Chiller T.

The evolving role of CD4 cell counts in HIV care. Greene G, Sriruttan C, Le T, Chiller T, Govender NP. Looking for fungi in all the right places: screening for cryptococcal disease and other AIDS-related mycoses among patients with advanced HIV disease. Hurst SF, Berkow EL, Stevenson KL, Litvintseva AP, Lockhart SR.

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Isolation of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus from the environment in the south-eastern USA. Kordalewska M, Zhao Y, Lockhart SR, Chowdhary A, Berrio I, Perlin DS. Rapid and accurate molecular identification of the emerging multidrug resistant pathogen Candida auris. Lepak AJ, Zhao M, Berkow EL, Lockhart SR, Andes DR. Pharmacodynamic Optimization for Treatment of Invasive Candida auris Infection. Lockhart SR, Berkow EL, Chow N, Welsh RM. Candida auris for the clinical microbiology laboratory: Not your grandfather’s Candida species.

Lockhart SR, Ghannoum MA, Alexander BD. Establishment and use of epidemiological cutoff values for molds and yeasts using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M57 standard. Lockhart SR, Jackson BR, Vallabhaneni S, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Pappas PG, Chiller T. Thinking beyond the common Candida species: Need for speciation of Candida due to the emergence of multidrug resistant Candida auris.

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Lopez LF, Munoz CO, Caceres DH, Tobon AM, Loparev V, Clay O, et al. Standardization and validation of real time PCR assays for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis using three molecular targets in an animal model. Magobo RE, Naicker SD, Wadula J, Nchabeleng M, Coovadia Y, Hoosen A, et al. Detection of neonatal unit clusters of Candida parapsilosis fungaemia by microsatellite genotyping: Results from laboratory-based sentinel surveillance, South Africa, 2009-2010. Molloy SF, Chiller T, Greene GS, Burry J, Govender N, Kanyama C, et al. Montagna MT, De Donno A, Caggiano G, Serio F, De Giglio O, Bagordo F, et al.

Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from environmental sources and genetic comparison with clinical isolates in Apulia, Italy. Queiroz-Telles F, Fahal AH, Falci DR, Caceres DH, Chiller T, Pasqualotto AC. Rajasingham R, Smith RM, Park BJ, Jarvis JN, Govender NP, Chiller TM, Denning DW, Loyse A, Boulware DR. Global burden of disease of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: an updated analysis. Rhodes J, Desjardins CA, Sykes SM, Beale MA, Vanhove M, Sakthikumar S, et al. Tracing Genetic Exchange and Biogeography of Cryptococcus neoformans var. Rick F, Niyibizi AA, Shroufi A, Onami K, Steele SJ, Kuleile M, et al.

Cryptococcal antigen screening by lay cadres using a rapid test at the point of care: A feasibility study in rural Lesotho. Samayoa B, Roy M, Cleveland AA, Medina N, Lau-Bonilla D, Scheel CM, et al. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients with Histoplasmosis in Guatemala. Schuster MG, Cleveland AA, Dubberke ER, Kauffman CA, Avery RK, Husain S, et al.