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Jump to navigation Jump to search Not to be confused with gamma rays. A gamma wave is a pattern of neural oscillation in humans with a frequency between 25 and 100 Hz, though 40 Hz connect with Delta Gamma typical.

Whether or not gamma wave activity is related to subjective awareness is a very difficult question which cannot be answered with certainty at the present time. Gamma waves were initially ignored before the development of digital electroencephalography as analog electroencephalography is restricted to recording and measuring rhythms that are usually less than 25 Hz. Subsequent experiments by many others demonstrated this phenomenon in a wide range of visual cognition. A number of experiments conducted by Rodolfo Llinás supports a hypothesis that the basis for consciousness in awake states and dreaming is 40-Hz oscillations throughout the cortical mantle in the form of thalamocortical iterative recurrent activity. A lead article by Andreas K. The hypothesis is that synchronization of neuronal discharges can serve for the integration of distributed neurons into cell assemblies and that this process may underlie the selection of perceptually and behaviorally relevant information. The proposed answer lies in a wave that, originating in the thalamus, sweeps the brain from front to back, 40 times per second, drawing different neuronal circuits into synch with the precept , and thereby bringing the precept into the attentional foreground.

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If the thalamus is damaged even a little bit, this wave stops, conscious awarenesses do not form, and the patient slips into profound coma. Gamma waves are observed as neural synchrony from visual cues in both conscious and subliminal stimuli. A 2009 study published in Nature successfully induced gamma waves in mouse brains. Experiments on Tibetan Buddhist monks have shown a correlation between transcendental mental states and gamma waves. As mentioned above, gamma waves have been observed in Tibetan Buddhist monks. A 2004 study took eight long-term Tibetan Buddhist practitioners of meditation and, using electrodes, monitored the patterns of electrical activity produced by their brains as they meditated.

Such evidence and research in gamma-band oscillations may explain the heightened sense of consciousness, bliss, and intellectual acuity subsequent to meditation. Notably, meditation is known to have a number of health benefits: stress reduction, mood elevation, and increased life expectancy of the mind and its cognitive functions. The current Dalai Lama meditates for four hours each morning, and he says that it is hard work. Many neuroscientists are not convinced of the gamma wave argument. However, proponents like O’Nuallain and Andreas Engel argue that gamma evidence persists even with careful signal separation. EEG, have identified gamma activity associated with sensory processing, mainly in the visual cortex.

The gamma oscillations were found in humans during all states of the wake-sleep cycle, and were maximally coherent during slow-wave sleep. Bearing this theory in mind, a number of questions remain unexplained regarding details of exactly how the temporal synchrony results in a conscious awareness or how a new percept “calls for” the synchrony, etc. Gamma, fast, and ultrafast waves of the brain: their relationships with epilepsy and behavior”. Does 40-Hz oscillation play a role in visual consciousness? Visual feature integration and the temporal correlation hypothesis”.

Are neocortical gamma waves related to consciousness? Responses from the visual cortex of unanesthetized monkeys. Towards a neurobiological theory of consciousness. Temporal Binding, Binocular Rivalry, and Consciousness”. Synchronization of neural activity across cortical areas correlates with conscious perception”. Neuronal synchronization along the dorsal visual pathway reflects the focus of spatial attention”. High-frequency, long-range coupling between prefrontal and visual cortex during attention”.

Neural synchrony in stochastic resonance, attention, and consciousness”. Driving fast-spiking cells induces gamma rhythm and controls sensory responses. Gamma frequency entrainment attenuates amyloid load and modifies microglia”. Zero Power and Selflessness: What Meditation and Conscious Perception Have in Common”. Meditation Gives Brain a Charge, Study Finds”. Long-term meditators self-induce high amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice”.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. Whitham EM, Pope KJ, Fitzgibbon SP, et al. Scalp electrical recording during paralysis: quantitative evidence that EEG frequencies above 20 Hz are contaminated by EMG”. Whitham EM, Lewis T, Pope KJ, et al. Thinking activates EMG in scalp electrical recordings”. Transient induced gamma-band response in EEG as a manifestation of miniature saccades”. Bihemispheric network dynamics coordinating vocal feedback control”.

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Induced stimulus-dependent Gamma oscillations in visual stress”. Stimuli of varying spatial scale induce gamma activity with distinct temporal characteristics in human visual cortex”. Spatiotemporal frequency tuning of BOLD and gamma band MEG responses compared in primary visual cortex”. Spectral properties of induced and evoked gamma oscillations in human early visual cortex to moving and stationary stimuli”. High-frequency oscillations in human and monkey neocortex during the wake-sleep cycle”. Brain activity linked to schizophrenia, skillful meditation”. How Thinking Can Change the Brain, dalailama.

Jump to navigation Jump to search Several films and episodes of the science fiction franchise Star Trek are set in distinct regions of space. This list describes some of the more significant settings for Star Trek films or story arcs over multiple television episodes. Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: Voyager. Located in Star Trek’s Alpha Quadrant, the Badlands are characterized by constant plasma storms and funnel clouds. The Maquis use it in several episodes as a meeting or hiding place because of its treacherous navigation. In “Caretaker”, the pilot episode of Star Trek: Voyager, the titular starship pursues a Maquis ship into the Badlands before being teleported to the Delta Quadrant.

The Badlands are also mentioned in the computer game Star Trek: Armada II, where the Borg build up forces in that area close to the Federation. The Bajoran wormhole is discovered in the first episode of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. Starfleet Commander Benjamin Sisko and Lieutenant Jadzia Dax are the first people to make contact with the wormhole’s mysterious creators, who dwell inside it. Regions called the Briar Patch feature in more than one series. The Briar Patch is a fictional nebula in sector 441 in the Star Trek universe.

It was first introduced in the 1998 film Star Trek: Insurrection. The Klingon system Klach D’Kel Brakt is also given the designation “Briar Patch” by Dr Arik Soong in the Star Trek: Enterprise episode “The Augments”. The Delphic Expanse, commonly abbreviated as “the Expanse”, is the setting for the entire third season of Star Trek: Enterprise, first aired in 2003 and 2004. The Expanse is about 2000 light years across, surrounded by thick thermobaric clouds. Its edge is located about 50 light-years from Earth. Intense gravitational distortions, similar to quantum singularities, make travel through the Expanse extremely difficult, as it seems that space does not obey the known laws of physics in this region. Species native to the Expanse include the Loque’eque, the Skagarans, the Triannon, and the Xindi.

Featured locations of the Expanse include Azati Prime, the Calindra system, Oran’taku, Triannon, and Xindus. Because the spheres are cloaked, their exact number is unknown. Triannons believe that there are thousands of spheres. Xindi scientists, including Degra, determined that there were at least 78 spheres. The Triannons call the Expanse the “Chosen Realm”, and formed a religion around the spheres and the mythology of their creation. Xindi threat destined to arise in the 2150s. Unsuccessful attempts to explore the region are also made by the Vulcan ships Seleya and Vaankara.

It is followed later in the year by the Andorian ship Kumari. On February 13, 2154, the Enterprise destroys the network of Spheres, reverting the distorted space to its natural form, and gradually dissipating the thermobaric cloud barrier. The Expanse thus ceases to exist, becoming a normal, unthreatening region of space. Although the Enterprise’s Captain Jonathan Archer is shown a possible timeline in which the Expanse becomes a major threat to the future United Federation of Planets, this eventuality appears to be eliminated by the successful destruction of the Spheres.

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The field completely encompasses the galactic disk, preventing a conventional starship from traveling beyond the edge of the galaxy. Although numerous attempts to travel outside the galaxy are made, with various degrees of success, the barrier usually damages or destroys ships that try to pass through it. The barrier appears as a pink band of light and, upon entering it, a ship is surrounded by dancing clouds of colorful energy. Inside the barrier, a ship’s engines shut down and navigational systems become erratic.

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The barrier is encountered again in the episode “Is There in Truth No Beauty? Enterprise becomes lost within the barrier and is saved by the astounding navigational skills of an alien passenger. The barrier had also damaged an alien ship from outside the galaxy, as explained in the episode “By Any Other Name”, stranding the aliens until they try to steal the Enterprise and return to their home galaxy, Andromeda. A second barrier at the core of the Milky Way is first revealed in the motion picture Star Trek V: The Final Frontier.

Being the only encounter ever shown, the only known reference is the “Great Barrier”. The novel Q-Squared reveals the Galactic Barrier to be Q himself, in a time-tossed and temporally discorporated state. An artistic rendition of the actual Milky Way galaxy, overlaid with one overall view of the fictional quadrant system of the Star Trek universe and the location of certain species. In the original Star Trek, “quadrant” is used interchangeably with “sector”. However, beginning with Star Trek: The Next Generation, the term refers to a system of four Galactic Quadrants. Galactic quadrants within Star Trek are based around a meridian that runs from the center of the galaxy through Earth’s solar system, which is not unlike the system of quadrants used by non-fictional astronomers.

Alpha Quadrant is the quarter appearing between 6 and 9 o’clock. Beta Quadrant is the quarter appearing between 3 and 6 o’clock. Gamma Quadrant is the quarter appearing between 9 and 12 o’clock. Delta Quadrant is the quarter appearing between 12 and 3 o’clock. Beta border runs through, or is relatively close to, Federation space. The Dominion, which is the antagonist in the Deep Space Nine series, controls a large portion of the Gamma Quadrant.

Most of the information about the Delta Quadrant and its inhabitants comes from the series Star Trek: Voyager. On some Star Trek maps of the center of the galaxy, the galactic core is regarded as its own area, not part of any of the four Quadrants. The Cytherians, from the Next Generation episode “The Nth Degree,” are located near this area. The Nekrit Expanse is a vast unpopulated nebular region in the Delta Quadrant, several thousand light years across. It is impossible to chart due to its constantly changing structure. As a result of its size, the Expanse functions as a natural barrier, limiting contact between species on either side of the cloud.

There is a Federation-Cardassian demilitarized zone created at the end of hostilities between the two powers in the mid-24th century. The peace treaty ending the war and subsequent border adjustments result in several Federation worlds within the zone being ceded to the Cardassians. The Klingon Neutral Zone, sometimes known as the Organian Neutral Zone, appears to be set up during the time of the Star Trek: The Original Series. Unlike the Romulan Neutral Zone, the Klingon Neutral Zone appears to have some commercial traffic crossing it. The Organians are non-corporeal beings from the planet Organia IV, which is strategically situated between the Klingon Empire and the Federation. When both parties, thinking the Organians are a pre-industrial people, attempt to occupy their world, the Organians reveal their posthuman nature and impose the Neutral Zone and a peace treaty between the two powers.

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The zone is the site of the Kobayashi Maru scenario in the film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan. The Klingon Neutral Zone is abolished by the Khitomer Accords in 2293. In Star Trek Into Darkness, set in an alternate reality, the USS Enterprise violates the Neutral Zone to capture Khan Noonien Singh. The Romulan Neutral Zone is established around 2160 or 2161 by the treaty of Algeron which ends the Earth-Romulan War, and is still in effect at the end of Star Trek Nemesis.

The Neutral Zone remains uncrossed during a period of extended Romulan isolationism. In 2364, several Federation and Romulan outposts along their respective sides of the Neutral Zone are destroyed by unknown forces. The Enterprise-D is ordered to investigate. Subsequent covert incursions of the Neutral Zone include the Romulans’ plan to invade Vulcan using disguised Vulcan ships. Romulan conference on Romulus during the Dominion War.

In Star Trek Nemesis, Shinzon lies that he wishes to take down the zone as part of his ultimately failed plot to destroy Earth and the rest of the Federation. Sector 001 is the Federation designation for the area of space that contains the Solar System. The term “Sector 001” is first used in the episode “The Best of Both Worlds”. The engagement between Starfleet and the Borg in Star Trek: First Contact is likewise named the Battle of Sector 001. The Delphic Expanse is rife with such distortions generated by spheres which reconfigure space to resemble the Sphere Builders’ transdimensional realm.

The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada – February 1998 Volume 92 Number 1 pp. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group. Adrenal – An organ located above the kidneys – it manufactures a natural steroid called cortisol, which is associated with stress. Amygdala – This is a pair of structures that exist an inch or so in from the forehead – there’s one on the right side and one on the left side – they supposedly have an impact on moods. The right one is active when a person is depressed, and the left one is active when a person is cheerful.

Also, they are associated with fear, and the “fight or flight” response. Note – some disagreement over precisely how the Amgydalae operate – this article seems to reflect what I put above. Although, other sources I’ve been told say the backs of the two amgydalae are associated with “bad” feelings and the fronts of both are associated with good feelings. Angular Gyrus – A tiny part of the brain in the right cortex that some sources connect with out of body experiences. Astral Projection – In a nutshell, it’s a kind of out of body experience.

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I don’t want to bog the definition down with a lot of details. I’ve never astrally projected, myself – so I can’t really vouch for it one way or the other. For a more elaborate explanation, read the definition for Brainwave Entrainment in its entirety. If you have lights flashing at 4 cycles a second, our brain will begin to mimic that with its own brainwaves. When our brainwaves are at a certain frequency, our body will do whatever it normally would do — we normally produce brainwaves of 4 cycles a second when we’re sleeping – so pulsating light at this rate would put a person to sleep.

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For instance, if you had a 400 HZ tone in one ear, and a 404 HZ tone in the other, you would perceive a third tone of 4 HZ. And this would have the same effects that a pulsating light at 4 cycles per second would. Modulation – While a tone at 4 HZ would be too low to hear by itself, if you generate noise and then fluctuate its pitch or volume at 4 times each second, this can also be used for brainwave entrainment, and would affect us the same way a 4 HZ binaural would. As far as which of these two methods are better – binaural beats probably work better for brainwave entrainment, but the second method will work from speakers – headphones aren’t required. That can come in handy – especially when you want to experiment with brainwave entrainment while sleeping or meditating – ever tried falling asleep wearing headphones? I have a cordless pair, and even with those, it’s not that comfortable. And if that’s not enough information about Brainwave Entrainment, check out the Brainwave Entrainment links for even more.

Brainwave Ranges – In talking about brainwaves, they are typically broken up into ranges, each range being associated with different mental states. I really simplify what they’re associated with here – for more specific mental states these ranges are associated with, consult the brainwave frequency list itself. There is an abundance of betawave functioning when we speak . Gamma rhythms appear to be involved in higher mental activity, including perception and consciousness. It seems to be associated with consciousness, eg it disappears with general anaesthesia .

Note that there’s a LOT of disagreement over where Beta range ends and Gamma range begins. Sigma that some sources throw in to the mix that really aren’t as commonly used. Caudate Nucleus – a part of the brain – one side of it is associated with various states of arousal. Clairvoyance – the alleged power of seeing things not present to the senses. I own – unfortunately the cover and cover pages got lost a long time ago, so I’m not sure which one it is. Christ Consciousness – it seems to be a similar concept to the “Holy Spirit” of Christianity.

Edgar Cayce mentions it quite a few times. Color – WARNING : Those frequency listing entries that requested you see this – they really aren’t frequencies in HZ – they are wavelength values in NM. On the Brainwave Generator message board in April 2003, Glen Oberman posted a conversion equation between NM and HZ for colors. Since the true values in HZ would be extremely high, it’s necessary to reduce the octave until you’re in the audible hearing range. In much the same way Hans Cuosto does with the orbits and revolutions of planets, except he’s usually going up in octave, not down. I used the table on this webpage as the basis for the wavelength values for the various colors, for the sake of converting them into frequency values in HZ. As you can see, the source for the wavelength values left tiny gaps in between where one color ended and the next began.

It probably doesn’t make a big difference in terms of wavelengths. Take red and orange, for instance. 58 likely would be right on the border between the two. Any of these HZ ranges for each color can be reduced or increased an octave by doubling or halving the values in that range.

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So, you likely have ranges that overlap. For instance, a value HZ that may be associated with the color red could also be associated with a lower octave of another color. So it makes me think perhaps other methods of associating colors with sound frequencies are needed. They seem to have some funky system they use in all their freeware sound programs. It’s also associated with stress and aging.

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It’s released in response to stress. Reducing cortisol production in theory could be used for anti-aging effects. Cymatics – The study of the effects of sound on matter – I use it as a very loose term to cover sound frequencies that claim to effect matter or human biology in some way. 20s, and then it declines from there.

It’s not completely known what this hormone does – although many claims are associated with it . Endogenous Opiates – A family of chemicals the brain produces that serve as pain-killers, and also help to reduce anxiety and fear. This family includes Endorphins, Ekephalins, and Dynorphins. Endorphins – These are chemicals the brain generates that regulate pain. Endorphins actually determine what ‘reality’ is for each of us – endorphins, our natural opiates, are a filtering mechanism in the brain.

The opiate system selectively filters incoming information from every sense – sight , hearing , smell, taste and touch and blocks some of it from percolating to higher levels of consciousness. Enkephalins – Like endorphins, these are chemicals the brain generates that can serve as natural pain killers. Excretion – The process of removing waste materials from the body. Besides the most obvious ‘waste materials’, excretion would also cover things like exhaling carbon dioxide. Frontal Lobe – The frontal lobe is one of the five lobes of the cortex and its primarily function is receiving input from the rest of the brain, planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality, motor control, and a variety of higher cognitive functions, including behavior and emotions.

Ganzfeld Effect – This effect was first noticed by Arctic explorers – when they encountered blizzard conditions and could see nothing but white regardless of where they looked, it tended to create altered states of consciousness. Harmonic Box X Method – A method of creating binaural beats using more than one voice, where the monaurals and accidental binaurals created actually complement the primary binaural, either having the same value of it, or a multiple of that value. An example of a preset using the Harmonic Box method can be found on the Sonic Alchemy Logbook page . Hippocampus – Simple definition – A part of the brain that is required to form long term memories. If we took that part of the brain out, short term memories could still be formed, and memories stored would still be there, but no new long term memories could be formed.