Community Public Water Supply this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC. Many research studies have proven the safety and benefits of fluoride.
For 70 years, people in the United States have benefited from drinking water with fluoride, leading to better dental health. By preventing cavities, community water fluoridation has been shown to save money for families and for the US health care system. Community water fluoridation is the most cost-effective way to deliver fluoride to people of all ages, education levels, and income levels who live in a community. Most water has some fluoride, but usually not enough to prevent cavities.
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Community water systems can add the right amount of fluoride to the local drinking water to prevent cavities. Community water fluoridation is recommended by nearly all public health, medical, and dental organizations. It is recommended by the American Dental Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, US Public Health Service, and World Health Organization. Because of its contribution to the large decline in cavities in the United States since the 1960s, CDC named community water fluoridation one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century.
RecommendationsUS Surgeons General statements, published guidelines, scientific reviews, and reports. Water supply and sanitation in Indonesia is characterized by poor levels of access and service quality. Over 40 million people lack access to an improved water source and more than 110 million of the country’s 240 million population has no access to improved sanitation. 2 per capita a year in 2005 was insufficient to expand services significantly and to properly maintain assets.
Furthermore, policy responsibilities are fragmented between different Ministries. The provision of clean drinking water has unfortunately not yet been taken up as a development priority, particularly at the provincial government level. The lack of access to clean water and sanitation remains a serious challenge, especially in slums and rural areas. Indonesia has over 5,590 rivers, most of them short and steep.
Because of high rainfall intensities most rivers carry large quantities of sediment. Average rainfall is above 2,000 mm on most islands, except for the Lesser Sunda Islands where it is 1,500 mm. For example, the main water source for Jakarta is the Jatiluhur Dam on the Citarum River 70 km southeast of the city. For those who are self-supplied or receive water from community-based organizations, shallow groundwater and springs are by far the main sources of water on most islands. Domestic sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff, and mismanaged solid waste are polluting surface and groundwater, especially in Java.
Indonesia ranks among the worst countries in Asia in sewerage and sanitation coverage. Few Indonesian cities possess even minimal sanitation systems. The absence of an established sanitation network forces many households to rely upon private septic tanks or to dispose of their waste directly into rivers and canals. 8 percent from 51,372,661 houses in Indonesia have domestic waste treatment.
More than half of households dispose their domestic waste directly to the river body. Industrial activities wastes such as small-scale industries, agriculture, textile, pulp and paper, petrochemical, mining and oil and gas also contribute to the degradation of water quality in Indonesia. Therefore, the result of water quality monitoring in 30 rivers in Indonesia indicates that most of river water quality do not meet water criteria class 1, i. Data on access to water and sanitation in Indonesia vary depending on the source consulted and the definition of access. Indonesia has one of the lowest sewerage coverage levels in Asia with only 2 percent access in urban areas. Most excreta and wastewater are discharged untreated or semi-treated into local drains or water bodies, causing massive environmental pollution. Dense housing, severe seasonal flooding and the choking of drains with uncollected solid waste exacerbate the problem.
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No data is available on the average continuity of water supply in Indonesian cities. People in Jakarta spend significant resources on boiling water to make it drinkable. Indonesian women report spending more than 100,000 rupiahs or 11 US dollars a month on kerosene for boiling water. However, a new system to treat drinking water at the household level without boiling has cut down on these costs and reduces health risks among women and children. The economic costs associated with inadequate water supply and unsanitary conditions represent formidable obstacles to the improvement of living standard.
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The enormous economic costs resulting from chronic ill health can contribute to poor nutrition, poor school performance, reduced productivity, and permanent disability and thus represent a drag on economic development. 3 billion due to poor sanitation and hygiene, equivalent to approximately 2. Efforts to provide adequate water supply and sanitation facilities in Indonesia is also challenged by the country’s population increase that led to postponement of investment in the infrastructure required for the provision of urban water and sanitation. Such challenge can lead to greater costs in the future. Policy and regulatory responsibilities for the water and sanitation sector are shared among several ministries.
While the Ministry of Health is responsible for water quality-related aspects, and to a certain extent rural services, responsibility for the urban sector is shared between the Ministry of Home Affairs and the Ministry of Public Works. Most strategies for the sector are formulated at the national level. Capacity problems, funding constraints and political factors at the sub-national level often mean national strategies are not well implemented. Furthermore, law enforcement is weak, especially for environmental sanitation. In 2008 the Health Ministry launched a National Strategy for Community-Led Total Sanitation, emphasizing peer pressure and shame as drivers for rural sanitation instead of public investment. 2004 on Fiscal Balance between the Center and the Regions. There are 319 PDAMs in Indonesia.
Some smaller PDAMs have associated themselves under Public-Private Partnerships. The first such partnership was created under the provincial government of North Sumatra in 1999, involving six PDAMs led by the utility in Tirtanadi. Another partnership of 11 PDAMs was established in Eastern Indonesia together with the Dutch water company WMD. As of 2011, 29 localities had signed contracts with private companies to operate, and sometimes also to finance, their water infrastructure.
Most other contracts are relatively small with water sales of less than 100,000 cubic meter per day. Utilities are associated in Perpamsi, the national association of water utilities created in 1972. In 2003 Perpamsi initiated a performance benchmarking program with support from the World Bank. Indonesia, including most of the larger ones. Rural Indonesia has a long history of community-managed water supply services using naturally occurring springs, rainwater and groundwater sources. However, community capacities to sustain such water systems over long periods have tended to be limited.
Measuring success in terms of sustained population access to services, and effective use of those services, i. The community participation and cost recovery under the new approach has led to greater sustainability of services. For example, an evaluation of a Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project supported by the Asian Development Bank that did not yet use the new approach revealed that less than four years after project completion, only 30 per cent of the water supply facilities and 30 per cent of sanitation facilities constructed by the project were still functioning. However, in peri-urban areas or rural areas that are increasingly absorbed in urban conglomerations, community management alone may not be an adequate arrangement. According to the World Bank, newer models of support and responsibility sharing between user communities and local governments or local private sector agencies are needed.
Civil society groups, both local and international, play a vital role in the sector. Some are implementing water and sanitation programs in districts that have not yet received any form of government support in the sector. Despite their diversity, most are harmonised in their approach. Very few, however, work through government systems. Other civil society groups, including religious leaders in village communities, play a significant role in the success of community-based approaches. The first water utilities in Indonesia, called PDAM after their Indonesian acronym, were set up during the colonial period at the beginning of the 20th century.
Following independence in 1945 they became part of local government. In the 1970s the central government became more involved in their financing and management. In 1987 a government act nominally handed water supply back to local governments, but in reality central government remained very involved. In June 1997 two 25-year water concessions were awarded without bidding to serve the city of Jakarta beginning in February 1998.
Policy for rural water supply and sanitation. However, NRW data is generally unreliable as many PDAMs do not have meters installed to accurately measure NRW. The Ministry of Home Affairs Decree No. 2006 sets out a policy of full cost recovery through tariff revenues for water utilities. The decree prescribes an increasing-block water tariff with a first subsidized tariff block for a consumption of up to 10 cubic meters per household, and a break-even tariff for higher consumption. Commercial and industrial users can be charged higher tariffs with higher blocks at the full-cost tariff. Water sold by vendors is much more expensive than piped water.
According to these figures, at least the Jakarta utility managed to recover its costs. As in many other countries, those not connected to water supply networks pay the most for water. The water and sanitation sector is not given a high priority at the national or sub-national level, partly because of competing priorities from other sectors such as health and education. Few local governments use their own resources to implement water and sanitation activities and when given funding through open-menu infrastructure programs, local governments and communities rarely choose water and sanitation as the main activity. All figures are in current trillion Rupiah for 2005. The economic crisis of the late 1990s had severely curtailed investment in infrastructure. Loan financing to PDAMs faces numerous challenges.
For example, the Ministry of Finance requires its loans to be channeled through regional governments whose legislatures have to pledge future central government transfers as collateral. Since regional legislatures are reluctant to do so, central government lending to utilities is not likely to re-emerge even after the issue of old debt would be settled. Thus PDAMs are likely to be limited in their access to finance largely to grants, which are scarce. Water supply is expected to receive Rp 3 trillion of hibah from the national budget between 2010 and 2014, complemented by funds from external donors.
Grants by the Ministry of Public Works for raw water supply and treatment. The pilot project is part of a national program called Kredit Usaha Rakyat that provides loans for community and small scale enterprises. Most external partners have focused their cooperation on rural areas, or work exclusively there. Most of the support for urban areas comes from Japan, the Netherlands and the United States.
The Community Water Services and Health Project, approved in 2005, aimed at providing clean water and sanitation facilities to about 1,500 communities of rural Indonesia, including tsunami-affected areas. UNICEF supports the Indonesian government in developing and implementing strategies that improve drinking water and sanitation conditions across the country. UNICEF also assists the government in improving relevant planning mechanisms, monitoring systems and databases. The World Bank’s Third Water Supply and Sanitation for Low Income communities Project, approved in 2006, aims to increase the number of low-income rural and peri-urban populations accessing improved water and sanitation facilities and practicing improved hygiene behaviors. Australia has supported efforts to improve rural water supply and sanitation in Indonesia, particularly Eastern Indonesia, for almost 30 years. Dutch development aid support various water companies in Eastern Indonesia. Java and Sumatra on issues related to full cost recovery tariffs and improved technical operation, with the objective of improving their creditworthiness and ability to borrow to meet network expansion needs.
Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF:Indonesia data 2010. Imam Anshori, Chief of Sub Directorate of River Basin Management, Directorate General of Water Resources, Ministry of Public Works:Basin Water Resources Management and Organization in Indonesia, ca. Wijanti Hadipuro:Indonesia’s Water Supply Regulatory Framework:Between Commercialistaion and Public Service? World Bank:Indonesia Environment Monitor 2003, Special focus: Reducing pollution, p. WEPA:State of Water Environmental Issues in Indonesia. MOHA-SEMAC:GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA NUMBER: 82 OF 2001 REGARDING WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND WATER POLLUTION CONTROL. Water and Sanitation Program Field Note, May 2011.
PROJECT, June 1, 2006, Annex 1. Asian Development Bank:City Profile:Jakarta Water Supply, Data as of 2001. According to Ismail Malik of the Ministry of Health, quoted in Asian Development Bank:Country Water Action: Indonesia Simple Solution for Drinking Water Makes Big Difference, March 2006. Asian Development Bank:Country Water Action: Indonesia Simple Solution for Drinking Water Makes Big Difference, March 2006.
East Asia: Economics of Sanitation Initiative. 2008, Retrieved on February 24, 2012. 14, Retrieved on February 24, 2012. Australian Government, AusAID, Office of Development Effeciveness, Working Paper 2:INDONESIA. Amrta Institute for Water Literacy, Indonesia:Public-Public Partnerships in Indonesia, ca.
Crane, Randall, “Water Markets, Water Reform, and the Urban Poor: Results from Jakarta, Indonesia”, World Development, Vol. ADB Archived December 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Indonesia to Collaborate on Water Utility Financing, September 22, 2006. National emblem of Indonesia Garuda Pancasila. Scoggins Dam is critical to Washington County’s community health and water supply. Water managers in Washington County are facing a tough decision about the future of the Scoggins Dam, which holds back Hagg Lake.
The federal government will begin work next week to determine the best way to improve the earthquake resistance of Scoggins Dam in Washington County. Options with higher water surfaces impact more land, but will store more water for the community. With the potential future threat of a major earthquake and our growing population, we need to strengthen Scoggins dam to protect the public and meet our communities long-term water needs. Access to water is critical to our families, businesses, and agriculture.
Improving the safety and storage capacity of Scoggins Dam will support the growing region and is especially important in a time of sustained drought in western states. Jump to navigation Jump to search This article has last been updated in 2012. Please feel free to update it further. Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh is characterised by a number of achievements and challenges. 2004, a very high level for a low-income country. The government has adopted a number of policies to remedy the challenges in the sector, including National Policies for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation, both of 1998, a National Water Policy of 1864, a National Water Management Plan, and a National Policy for Arsenic Mitigation, both of 2004, as well as a National Sanitation Strategy of 2005.
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Among others, these policies emphasise decentralisation, user participation, the role of women, and “appropriate pricing rules”. In 2015, there were still around 21 million lacking access to “improved” water. Since arsenic was discovered in Bangladeshi groundwater in 1993, the share of population with access to safe drinking water had to be adjusted downward. Rainwater harvesting, although practised in Bangladesh, was not included in the survey. In 2005, the Bangladeshi Minister for Local Government and Rural Development presented a National Sanitation Strategy that ambitiously aimed to reach universal access to sanitation by 2010. 07, none provided water continuously to all customers. In Dhaka, nearly one third of domestic effluents do not receive any kind of treatment.
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In 1993 it was discovered that groundwater in large parts of Bangladesh was naturally contaminated with arsenic. It is predicted that Bangladesh’s population will increase from 129 million people in 2000 to 181 million by 2025 and 224 million by 2050, accompanied by an increased demand for water. Piped water supply, as estimated by the utility, was about 100 litres per capita per day in Dhaka in 2007 for those with access to piped water supply. This amount is slightly less than per capita water use in Germany. Given the low share of metering, estimates of per capita water use are not reliable.
In a sample of 11 cities, 8 did not have any customer metering at all. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia’s quality standards. The specific problem is: this section needs to be rewritten to change the focus from water resources management to water supply and sanitation, and by including more appropriate sub-headings. The country’s national water policy was mainly focused on agricultural issues and was aimed at food self-sufficiency.
Accordingly, flood control drainage and irrigation projects were the most common measures. 1959 to plan, construct and operate all water development schemes. After the independence from Pakistan in 1971, EPWAPDA was restructured and renamed the Bangladesh Water Development Board. The new republic soon gained support from several agencies. The World Bank published the Land and Water Sector Study in 1972, advocating small-scale flood control and irrigation projects. The first phase of the NWP was completed in 1986 and included an assessment of available water resources and future demand. Two destructive floods in 1987 and 1988 were followed by increased international attention and assistance.
France, the United States, Japan, and others. The World Bank coordinated the donor activities. NWRC in 2004 and aims at implementing the NWP within 25 years. It is expected to be reviewed and updated every five years. Complementing the National Water Policy, the government adopted the National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation in 1998.
In 2004 it also adopted a National Policy for Arsenic Mitigation in 2004. A number of innovative approaches to improve access to and the sustainability of water supply and sanitation were developed in Bangladesh since the turn of the millennium. These include community-led total sanitation and new management models for piped rural water supply, both further described below. In addition, innovative pilot projects were initiated in Dhaka.
Bangladesh in a small village in the Rajshahi District by Dr. Until then, most traditional sanitation programs relied on the provision of subsidies for the construction of latrines and hygiene education. Under this framework, the subsidised facilities were expensive and often did not reach all members of a community. In addition, the subsidies may have reduced the feeling of personal responsibility for the toilets. These perceived shortcomings led to the development of the CLTS approach in Bangladesh, shifting the focus on personal responsibility and low-cost solutions. CLTS aims to totally stop open defecation within a community rather than facilitating improved sanitation only to selected households. In 2006, the number of villages with total sanitation was estimated at more than 5,000 throughout the country.
At the same time, CLTS had spread in at least six countries in Asia and three in Africa. Deep tubewells with electric pumps are common as source of water supply for irrigation in Bangladesh. The government had long been interested in making the operation of these tubewells more financially viable. One option considered was to increase revenues by selling water from deep tubewells as drinking water and for small-scale commercial operations, thus at the same time addressing the arsenic crisis. As of January 2008, 73 small schemes had been completed, both in areas where the shallow aquifer is contaminated by arsenic and those where this is not the case. Sponsors are NGOs, cooperatives or individuals. The number of applicants each year outnumbers the schemes to be constructed.
According to a 2009 report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to water and sanitation after a visit to Bangladesh, there is “an overall lack of monitoring and accountability” and “corruption continues to plague the sector”. Numerous ministries in Bangladesh have responsibilities relating to water and sanitation services. The Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives has overall responsibility for monitoring and governing the sector, including policy formulation through its Local Government Division. Prime Minister formulates policies and oversees their implementation.