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IPsec VTIs simplify the configuration of IPsec for protection of remote links, support multicast, and simplify network management and load balancing. Security threats, as well as the cryptographic technologies to help protect against them, are constantly changing. For the latest feature information and caveats, see the release notes for your platform and software release. Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www. Therefore the same IKE SA cannot be used for a crypto map. IPsec SA that is attached to the VTI interface.
The traffic selector for the IPsec SA is always “IP any any. The DVTI can accept the multiple IPsec selectors that are proposed by the initiator. DVTIs support multiple proxies, but DVTIs do not allow mixing “any any” proxies with non-“any any” proxies. DVTIs permit only one type at a time, either a single “any any” proxy or multiple “no any any” proxies. VRF-aware IPsec configurations with either SVTIs or DVTIs.
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Single Template Model In the single template model, the VRF is configured in the ISAKMP profile. The IPsec VTI allows for the flexibility of sending and receiving both IP unicast and multicast encrypted traffic on any physical interface, such as in the case of multiple paths. Traffic is encrypted or decrypted when it is forwarded from or to the tunnel interface and is managed by the IP routing table. This method tends to be slow and has limited scalability. Features for clear-text packets are configured on the VTI. Features for encrypted packets are applied on the physical outside interface. Additionally, multiple Cisco IOS software features can be configured directly on the tunnel interface and on the physical egress interface of the tunnel interface.
This direct configuration allows users to have solid control on the application of the features in the pre- or post-encryption path. The figure below illustrates how a SVTI is used. The IPsec VTI supports native IPsec tunneling and exhibits most of the properties of a physical interface. The DVTI technology replaces dynamic crypto maps and the dynamic hub-and-spoke method for establishing tunnels. The tunnels provide an on-demand separate virtual access interface for each VPN session. DVTIs function like any other real interface so that you can apply QoS, firewall, other security services as soon as the tunnel is active.
QoS features can be used to improve the performance of various applications across the network. Any combination of QoS features offered in Cisco IOS software can be used to support voice, video, or data applications. DVTIs provide efficiency in the use of IP addresses and provide secure connectivity. User or Unity group, or it can be derived from a certificate.
DVTIs are standards based, so interoperability in a multiple-vendor environment is supported. A DVTI requires minimal configuration on the router. A single virtual template can be configured and cloned. The DVTI creates an interface for IPsec sessions and uses the virtual template infrastructure for dynamic instantiation and management of dynamic IPsec VTIs. The virtual template infrastructure is extended to create dynamic virtual-access tunnel interfaces.
DVTIs are used in hub-and-spoke configurations. A single DVTI can support several static VTIs. DVTI is supported only in Easy VPNs. IPsec clones virtual access interface from virtual template interface. Traffic is encrypted when it is forwarded to the tunnel interface. Traffic forwarding is handled by the IP routing table, and dynamic or static routing can be used to route traffic to the SVTI.
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IPsec packet flow into the IPsec tunnel is illustrated in the figure below. After packets arrive on the inside interface, the forwarding engine switches the packets to the VTI, where they are encrypted. The encrypted packets are handed back to the forwarding engine, where they are switched through the outside interface. The figue below shows the packet flow out of the IPsec tunnel. The DVTI can accept multiple IPsec selectors that are proposed by the initiator. The DVTIs allow per peer features to be applied on a dedicated interface.
You can order features in such way that all features that are applied on the virtual access interfaces are applied before applying crypto. Additionally, all the features that are applied on the physical interfaces are applied after applying crypto. Clean routing is available across all VRFs so that there are no traffic leaks from one VRF to another before encrypting. Multi-SA VTIs ensure interoperation with third-party devices and provide a flexible, clean, and modular feature set.
Multi-SA VTIs enable a clean Cisco IOS infrastructure, even when the Cisco IOS software interoperates with third-party devices that implement only crypto maps. Users must configure several templates to enforce an appropriate IVRF for each customer. The number of templates must be equal to the number of customers connecting to the headend. Such a configuration is cumbersome and undesirable. This complication can be avoided by allowing the IKE profile to override the virtual access VRF with the VRF configured on the IKE profile. An even better solution will be to allow the IKE profile to override the virtual access VRF using AAA, but this method is supported only for IKEv2.
A better solution is to allow the IKE profile to override the virtual access VRF using AAA, but this method is supported only for IKEv2. The VRF configured in the ISAKMP profile is applied to the virtual access first. Then the configuration from virtual template is applied to the virtual access. VRF from the template overrides the VRF from the ISAKMP profile. If you configure VRF in an IKE profile and virtual template, then the virtual template IVRF gets precedence. If you change the VRF configured in an IKE profile, all the IKE SAs, IPsec SAs, and the virtual access identifier derived from this profile will get deleted. The same rule applies when the VRF is configured on the IKE profile for the first time.
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This attribute limits the number of IPsec flows that can terminate on an IPSec DVTI virtual access interface. IPSec profile is not applied to the current session but is applied to subsequent sessions. IPSec profile does not affect the virtual access. The IKEv2 multi-SA does not allow simultaneous configuration of a VRF and a template on the IKEv2 profile. Instead, the VRF can be configured on AAA and applied to the virtual access interface at the time of its creation. The dynamic interface is created at the end of IKE Phase 1 and IKE Phase 1.
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The interface is deleted when the IPsec session to the peer is closed. The IPsec session is closed when both IKE and IPsec SAs to the peer are deleted. Traffic is encrypted only if it is forwarded out of the VTI, and traffic arriving on the VTI is decrypted and routed accordingly. Defines the IPsec parameters that are to be used for IPsec encryption between two IPsec routers, and enters IPsec profile configuration mode. Specifies which transform sets can be used with the crypto map entry. Exits IPsec profile configuration mode, and enters global configuration mode. Specifies the interface on which the tunnel will be configured and enters interface configuration mode.
Specifies the IP address and mask. Defines the mode for the tunnel. Specifies the tunnel source as a loopback interface. Identifies the IP address of the tunnel destination.
Associates a tunnel interface with an IPsec profile. Exits interface configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode. Defines the IPsec parameters that are to be used for IPsec encryption between two IPsec routers and enters IPsec profile configuration mode. Exits ipsec profile configuration mode and enters global configuration mode.
Defines a virtual-template tunnel interface and enters interface configuration mode. Defines the ISAKAMP profile to be used for the virtual template. Matches an identity from the ISAKMP profile and enters isakmp-profile configuration mode. Specifies the virtual template attached to the ISAKAMP profile. Exits global configuration mode and enters privileged EXEC mode.
Exits VRF configuration mode and enters global configuration mode. 100-1 Defines a crypto key ring and enters key ring configuration mode. Exits keyring configuration mode and enters global configuration mode. 100-1 Defines an ISAKMP profile and enters ISAKMP configuration mode. 100-1 Configures a key ring in ISAKMP mode. 0 Matches an identity from the ISAKMP profile.
101 Specifies the virtual template that will be used to clone virtual access interfaces. Exits ISAKMP profile configuration mode and enters global configuration mode. Defines the transform set and enters crypto transform configuration mode. Exits crypto transform configuration mode and enters global configuration mode.
101 Defines the IPsec parameters used for IPsec encryption between two IPsec routers, and enters IPsec profile configuration mode. 3 Defines the IPsec parameters used for IPsec encryption between two IPsec routers, and enters IPsec profile configuration mode. Specifies the transform sets to be used with the crypto map entry. Exits IPsec profile and enters global configuration mode. 101 type tunnel Creates a virtual template interface that can be configured interface and enters interface configuration mode. VRF-100-1 Associates a VRF instance with a virtual-template interface.
0 Enables IP processing on an interface without assigning an explicit IP address to the interface. 4 Defines the mode for the tunnel. PROF Associates a tunnel interface with an IPsec profile. Exits interface configuration mode, and returns to privileged EXEC mode. Enables the AAA access control model. Sets parameters that restrict user access to a network.
Specifies an AAA attribute list that is defined in global configuration mode. Defines an attribute type that is to be added to an attribute list locally on a router. Ensures that the same session ID will be used for each AAA accounting service type within a call. Exits global configuration mode, and returns to privileged EXEC mode. Defines the VRF instance and enters VRF configuration mode. Creates routing and forwarding tables for a VRF. Creates a route-target export extended community for a VRF.
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Creates a route-target import extended community for a VRF. Exits VRF configuration mode, and returns to privileged EXEC mode. Perform this task to override the default IKEv2 proposal or to manually configure the proposals if you do not want to use the default proposal. An IKEv2 proposal is a set of transforms used in the negotiation of IKEv2 SA as part of the IKE_SA_INIT exchange. If no proposal is configured and attached to an IKEv2 policy, the default proposal in the default IKEv2 policy is used in negotiation. An IKEv2 proposal allows configuring one or more transforms for each transform type. An IKEv2 proposal does not have any associated priority.
Overrides the default IKEv2 proposal, defines an IKEv2 proposal name, and enters IKEv2 proposal configuration mode. The default DH group identifiers are group 2 and 5 in the IKEv2 proposal. Either group 14 or group 24 can be selected to meet this guideline. Even if a longer-lived security method is needed, the use of Elliptic Curve Cryptography is recommended, but group 15 and group 16 can also be considered. Exits IKEv2 proposal configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode. Perform this task to override the default IKEv2 policy or to manually configure the policies if you do not want to use the default policy.
An IKEv2 policy must contain at least one proposal to be considered as complete and can have match statements which are used as selection criteria to select a policy for negotiation. FVRF of the negotiating SA is matched with the policy and the proposal is selected. An IKEv2 policy without any match statements will match all peers in the global FVRF. An IKEv2 policy can have only one match FVRF statement. An IKEv2 policy can have one or more match address local statements. When selecting a policy, multiple match statements of the same type are logically ORed and match statements of different types are logically ANDed.
There is no precedence between match statements of different types. Configuring overlapping policies is considered a misconfiguration and in case of multiple possible policy matches, the first policy is selected. Overrides the default IKEv2 policy, defines an IKEv2 policy name and enters IKEv2 policy configuration mode. Specifies the proposals that must be used with the policy. The proposals are prioritized in the order of listing. You must specify at least one proposal. Optionally, you can specify additional proposals with each proposal in a separate statement.
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Matches the policy based on a user-configured FVRF or any FVRF. The FVRF specifies the VRF in which the IKEv2 packets are negotiated. Matches the policy based on the local IPv4 or IPv6 address. The default is match all the addresses in the configured FVRF. Exits IKEv2 policy configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode. IKEv2 keyring keys must be configured in the peer configuration submode that defines a peer subblock.
An IKEv2 keyring can have multiple peer subblocks. A peer subblock contains a single symmetric or asymmetric key pair for a peer or peer group identified by any combination of hostname, identity, and IP address. IKEv2 keyrings are independent of IKEv1 keyrings. IKEv2 keyrings support symmetric and asymmetric preshared keys. IKEv2 keyrings are specified in the IKEv2 profile and are not looked up, unlike IKEv1 where keys are looked up on receipt of MM1 to negotiate the preshared key authentication method. The authentication method is not negotiated in IKEv2.
The VRF of an IKEv2 keyring is the VRF of the IKEv2 profile that refers to the keyring. A single keyring can be specified in an IKEv2 profile, unlike an IKEv1 profile, which can specify multiple keyrings. A single keyring can be specified in more than one IKEv2 profile, if the same keys are shared across peers matching different profiles. An IKEv2 keyring is structured as one or more peer subblocks. On an IKEv2 initiator, IKEv2 keyring key lookup is performed using the peer’s hostname or the address, in that order. On an IKEv2 responder, the key lookup is performed using the peer’s IKEv2 identity or the address, in that order.
You cannot configure the same identity in more than one peer. Defines an IKEv2 keyring and enters IKEv2 keyring configuration mode. Defines the peer or peer group and enters IKEv2 keyring peer configuration mode. Describes the peer or peer group. Specifies the peer using a hostname. Specifies an IPv4 or IPv6 address or range for the peer.
This IP address is the IKE endpoint address and is independent of the identity address. The identity is available for key lookup on the IKEv2 responder only. Specifies the preshared key for the peer. By default, the preshared key is symmetric. Specifies that the preshared key is unencrypted.
Specifies that the preshared key is encrypted. Specifies that the unencrypted user preshared key. Specifies that the preshared key is in hexadecimal format. Exits IKEv2 keyring peer configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.
Perform this task to configure the mandatory commands for an IKEv2 profile. An IKEv2 profile must be configured and associated to either a crypto map or an IPsec profile on the IKEv2 initiator. When selecting a profile, multiple match statements of the same type are logically ORed, and multiple match statements of different types are logically ANDed. The match identity and match certificate statements are considered as same type of statements and are ORed. Configuring overlapping profiles is considered as misconfiguration and in case of multiple profile matches, no profile is selected. No more missed important software updates! The database recognizes 1,746,000 software titles and delivers updates for your software including minor upgrades.
Download the free trial version below to get started. Double-click the downloaded file to install the software. The Premium Edition adds important features such as complete software maintenance, security advisory, frequent minor upgrade versions, downloads, Pack exports and imports, 24×7 scheduling and more. Simply double-click the downloaded file to install it. You can choose your language settings from within the program.