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67ハッシュ and Russian: Майним Bitcoin с помощью бумаги и ручки. I decided to see how practical it would be to mine Bitcoin with pencil and paper. It turns out that the SHA-256 algorithm used for mining is pretty simple and can in fact be done by hand. Not surprisingly, the process is extremely slow compared to hardware mining and is entirely impractical.
But performing the algorithm manually is a good way to understand exactly how it works. The mining process Bitcoin mining is a key part of the security of the Bitcoin system. The idea is that Bitcoin miners group a bunch of Bitcoin transactions into a block, then repeatedly perform a cryptographic operation called hashing zillions of times until someone finds a special extremely rare hash value. At this point, the block has been mined and becomes part of the Bitcoin block chain. The SHA-256 algorithm consists of a relatively simple round repeated 64 times. The diagram below shows one round, which takes eight 4-byte inputs, A through H, performs a few operations, and generates new values of A through H. The blue boxes mix up the values in non-linear ways that are hard to analyze cryptographically.
Since the algorithm uses several different functions, discovering an attack is harder. If you could figure out a mathematical shortcut to generate successful hashes, you could take over Bitcoin mining. The Ma majority box looks at the bits of A, B, and C. For each position, if the majority of the bits are 0, it outputs 0. What this means for mining hardware Each step of SHA-256 is very easy to implement in digital logic – simple Boolean operations and 32-bit addition. If you’ve studied electronics, you can probably visualize the circuits already.
For this reason, custom ASIC chips can implement the SHA-256 algorithm very efficiently in hardware, putting hundreds of rounds on a chip in parallel. In contrast, Litecoin, Dogecoin, and similar altcoins use the scrypt hash algorithm, which is intentionally designed to be difficult to implement in hardware. It stores 1024 different hash values into memory, and then combines them in unpredictable ways to get the final result. As a result, much more circuitry and memory is required for scrypt than for SHA-256 hashes.
To be precise, the hash must be less than a particular value that depends on the current Bitcoin difficulty level. The source of the constants used in SHA-256 is interesting. The first sentence says “looks at the bits of A, B, and C”, which agrees with the diagram. But the fourth sentence says “for each position in B, C, and D”. The diagram shown says “transaction count: 63” but the block on Block Explorer says “Transactions: 99”. I shall go through it in detail in a bit. I love how you calculated energy costs lol.
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I am tempted to add you to my “Bitcoin Mining Rigs”. Now I think you are even more similar to Weird Al. And I also know what you do on Fridays when soccer season is not on. This is most helpful and removes the mystery. Basically there are few shifts, xors, and adds applied to the input data.
Or is null something different than a zero-length field? To me it seems the a thru h must be the final set of values coming from round 64 but what is “the compressed chunk”? 3 set of compression rounds will null as our input. It makes a difference in the 18th round hashing “abc”. Eliminate the bugs and it works!
Now after seeing your post I know how Bitcoin work manually. Thanks for creating such a good post. 0200000 and in minute 6:30 to 6:32, you have a doubt. It seems to be cyclically run this algorithm 256 times and add the data to the input ABCDEFGH obtained in 64 time. What have you done with her only publication in the network is possible that this algorithm is made by a generation of advanced humans. It would bitcoin wallet safer world.
I couldn’t find a down to earth explanation of SHA256 besides some cryptic jargon from NIST and numerous other websites. I’m curious about how the hash function manages to deal with data that’s bigger then what you’ve provided. I do realize that hash functions can only take in a certain amount of data but it is a rather large amount and I’m curious how it manages to “compress” it. The trick is that the values A-H are not reset at the start of each block, but kept from the previous block. So the final hash value is a combination of all the blocks. The Wikipedia page gives more details. I reported on my website about.
Which is is supposed to be? See Wikipedia for details on the operations. I have been looking over the wiki for a while and I cant seem to grasp exactly what is happening. It would be extremely useful if you could. I can do the algorithm by hand when given the inputs but I can’t take the information from bitcoin and turn it into the inputs for the algorithm.
I’ve actually already started my design for the part of the circuit that does the algorithm I just need to figure out how to obtain the inputs. There are two parts to this. On the the Bitcoin side, the data bytes are concatenated together to form the input to SHA-256. Regarding the Maj majority function, it surprisingly doesn’t matter if you use OR or XOR. Normally OR and XOR behave differently, but due to the structure of the Maj function, both formulas give the same result.
A to H values and so on until 64th round? And why are you summing this first new value of A with this new value? Are those random numbers of our choice? Thanks for putting the time in. What is the value of W for the second round?
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The first few W values are 02000000 17975b97 c18ed1f7 e255adf2 97599b55. Q: we discard the carry while doing addition? Mining Bitcoin with pencil and paper: 0. Could an IBM mainframe from the 1960s mine Bitcoin? The idea seemed crazy, so I decided to find out. I implemented the Bitcoin hash algorithm in assembly code for the IBM 1401 and tested it on a working vintage mainframe.
It turns out that this computer could mine, but so slowly it would take more than the lifetime of the universe to successfully mine a block. How Bitcoin mining works Bitcoin, a digital currency that can be transmitted across the Internet, has attracted a lot of attention lately. If you’re not familiar with how it works, the Bitcoin system can be thought of as a ledger that keeps track of who owns which bitcoins, and allows them to be transferred from one person to another. The interesting thing about Bitcoin is there’s no central machine or authority keeping track of things. Mining requires a task that is very difficult to perform, but easy to verify. Bitcoin mining uses cryptography, with a hash function called double SHA-256. With a cryptographic hash, there’s no way to get a hash value you want without trying a whole lot of inputs.
But once you find an input that gives the value you want, it’s easy for anyone to verify the hash. The dark blue boxes mix up the values in non-linear ways that are hard to analyze cryptographically. If you could figure out a mathematical shortcut to generate successful hashes, you could take over Bitcoin mining. The Ch “choose” box chooses bits from F or G, based on the value of input E.
Internally, the computer was very different from modern computers. Since it was a business machine, the computer used decimal arithmetic instead of binary arithmetic and each character of storage held a digit, 0 through 9. Performance comparison The IBM 1401 can compute a double SHA-256 hash in 80 seconds. It requires about 3000 Watts of power, roughly the same as an oven or clothes dryer. 125,600, which is about a million dollars in 2015 dollars.
Networking You might think that Bitcoin would be impossible with 1960s technology due to the lack of networking. Would one need to mail punch cards with the blockchain to the other computers? While you might think of networked computers as a modern thing, IBM supported what they call teleprocessing as early as 1941. Conclusion Implementing SHA-256 in assembly language for an obsolete mainframe was a challenging but interesting project. The decimal arithmetic of a business computer is a very poor match for a binary-optimized algorithm like SHA-256. How many cards did you have to throw away before you had the complete program? I developed the program on the ROPE 1401 simulator, so I only needed to punch it once.
MY first computer experience was programming a Honeywell computer using cards punched on an IBM punch card machine. Add to this, we were supposed to write and debug the program on paper, computer time was expensive, so we lost 5 points credit for every time we ran the deck of cards after the first. I really enjoy your writing, especially on the Z80, since I worked on the Z80 and the 68000 while at Mostek in the early 80s. Its called “Digital Apollo – Human and Machine in Spaceflight”, by D. It covers a lot of ground about the Apollo computer and control systems, at a technical level, but you don’t need to understand Control Theory to follow it.
I plan to look at the Apollo Guidance Computer in more detail at some point. Kaos: I’ve update the text to make it clearer. Randy: my previous article on the 1401 went into much more technical detail, so I didn’t repeat the details here. I’ll let you know if I manage to get it doing SHA-256 hashes.
Moores law was an observation and prediction. It was the sustained effort of many engineers over thag period. It would have happened with or without moores prediction. In any case, I’ve changed the wording to avoid confusion. My first permanent full time job was programming a 1401. 7010 system was much easier to understand and much more powerful. Do any working 1410s exist anywhere?
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And punch cards lived on too with the 2540. IIRC the 1403 shared the controller with the 2540 and that still used SMS cards. And, of course, the 360’s have 1401 emulation mode which was used to encourage upgrading to 360. A 1960s hashing function would have been implemented in 1960s technology. 256 is not a 1960s hash function. Cryptographic hash functions date from the 1970s. So what we’d have in the 1960s would be a simple CRC protection and then a bit more maybe.
A 1960s blockchain would have set the computability bar at the level of technology within grasp. Maybe a 1970s hash function would run faster? A stuff connected to the basic 1401. I work for IBM in the mainframe team and would love to discuss this with you further.
Does all of its arithmetic by table lookup in memory. But that’s not worth doing now, as yours trumps everything! By the way are there really thousands of SMS cards in a 1401? I don’t know if the history is right, or just a later embellishment of the CADET name.
I wrote 2 simple programs for the 1401 back in 1970-71 when I befriended one of the programmers at the High School district office. Does the pool give every pool’s miner a set of the possible values of the nonce to run through ? I think the pool is like a single node of the bitcoin peer to peer network and the bitcoin-core code doesn’t include a subroutine or class program about pool ? You have a really great informative blog with technology related topics, especially regarding vintage computing.
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So you’ve heard of Bitcoin, and you’re ready to get your hands on some digital wealth. You can buy and trade for bitcoins, or you can “mine” for them. Mining for bitcoins is actually the process of verifying other bitcoin transactions, which users are rewarded for. This is the central mechanic behind the bitcoin economy, and mining is used to keep transactions secure and reliable. Bitcoins are stored in digital wallets that are encrypted to protect your money. These wallets can be stored either locally or online. Online services are generally considered less secure as your money could potentially be lost if something catastrophic happens on their end.
Local wallets typically require verifying the entire blockchain, which is the history of all bitcoin transactions. Hosting a blockchain is what helps keep Bitcoin running and secure. Syncing this blockchain for the first time can take a day or more. Popular local wallets include BitcoinQT, Armory, and Multibit.
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Multibit does not require downloading the entire blockchain. You can also get wallet apps for your mobile device. These do not require downloading the entire blockchain. If you lose your wallet, you lose your money!
Since there is no “ownership” when it comes to wallets, anyone who gains access to your wallet can use your coins as they please. Choose a cloud mining service provider. Over time, the process of mining Bitcoin requires more and more processing power. Today, it is impractical for many users to invest in the equipment needed to mine Bitcoin personally. Typically, you will be payed in Bitcoin.
After you decide on a cloud mining service provider, you will need to choose a cloud mining package. To choose a package, you will need to decide how much you are willing to pay, and see how much hashing power that will give you. Many cloud mining companies will give you an estimate of your return based on the current market value of Bitcoin. Most cloud mining companies will ask you to join a mining pool. This is standard practice if you are cloud mining, or mining Bitcoin yourself. It increases your chances of earning Bitcoin.
It is recommended that you join a well established and proven pool. When joining a pool, you will need to create a “worker”. This is a subaccount which is used to track your contributions to the pool. You can have multiple workers at once. Put your earnings in your own secure wallet.
It is recommended that as soon as you start to see a return on your investment, that you withdraw your earnings and put them in your own secure wallet. When Bitcoin first started, it was possible to mine using only your desktop’s CPU and GPU. You will be spending far more on electricity than you will earn mining coins. As Bitcoin mining difficulty increases, more and more powerful hardware is needed to mine Bitcoin. Efficiency: ASIC miners consume a lot of electricity. In order to make a profit mining Bitcoin, you need a miner that efficiently converts that electricity into Bitcoin. Otherwise, you may end up spending more on electricity than you are able to make back in Bitcoin.
This doesn’t even factor in the cost of electricity and mining pool fees. Use a Bitcoin Mining Profit Calculator to factor in all the cost and receive an estimate of your expected returns. In addition to to purchasing an ASIC miner, you will also need to purchase a power supply that is compatible with the ASIC miner. ASIC miners consume a lot of electricity. These wallets can be either locally or online.
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Each pool will have instructions on creating workers. Connect the power supply to the ASIC miner. The power supply has a number cords attached to it. Connect each of the cords to the hashing boards on the ASIC miner. Then connect one cord the control board on the ASIC miner. Connect the ASIC miner to your router.
After you connect the power supply to the ASIC miner, use an ethernet cable to connect the ASIC miner to your router. There should be an LED indicator on the ASIC miner to indicate when it is fully booted up. It takes approximately 10 minutes for the ASIC miner to boot up. Before you can configure your ASIC miner, you need to find the IP address for the ASIC miner. You can find this in the admin page of your network router. Find “Connected Devices” in the router admin page.
The router admin page differs depending on the make and model of your router. Somewhere there should be a button that displays all the devices connected to your router. This is where you will find the ASIC miner. The ASIC miner is listed under all the devices connected to your router. Click on it to display the device information. When you click on the ASIC miner under the list of the devices connected to your router, it should display the IP address, among other information. This opens the admin page for the ASIC miner.
Log in to the ASIC miner. Check the users manual to see what the default log-in for the ASIC miner is. Typically the username and password is “Root” and “Root”. When the ASIC miner boots up, it starts mining right away. However, it will not be mining for you. It will be mining for the people who made. In order to get it to start mining for you, you need to input your mining pool information.