Easily clip, save and share what you find with bitcoin Wallet Supporting the Lightning Network Removed from Google Play and friends. Easily download and save what you find. Google in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson. The language was announced in November 2009.
0 was released in March 2012. It is used in some of Google’s production systems, as well as by many other companies and open source projects. A second compiler, gccgo, is a GCC frontend. Go originated as an experiment by Google engineers Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson to design a new programming language that would resolve common criticisms of other languages while maintaining their positive characteristics.
However, the mascot remained the same. Current Gopher mascot and old logo. Go is recognizably in the tradition of C, but makes many changes to improve brevity, simplicity, and safety. An interface system in place of virtual inheritance, and type embedding instead of non-virtual inheritance.
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A toolchain that, by default, produces statically linked native binaries without external dependencies. A desire to keep the language specification simple enough to hold in a programmer’s head, in part by omitting features which are common in similar languages. Go’s syntax includes changes from C aimed at keeping code concise and readable. These have a length and a capacity specifying when new memory needs to be allocated to expand the array. Several slices may share their underlying memory. C, or happen implicitly through the method call or attribute access syntax.
There is no pointer arithmetic, except via the special unsafe. Hash tables are built into the language, with special syntax and built-in functions. IPv4 addresses, based on 32-bit unsigned integers. Any named type has a method set associated with it. The IP address example above can be extended with a method for checking whether its value is a known standard.
While methods have special definition and call syntax, there is no distinct method type. Go provides two features that replace class inheritance. The first is embedding, which can be viewed as an automated form of composition or delegation. The second are its interfaces, which provides runtime polymorphism. Interfaces are a class of types and provide a limited form of structural typing in the otherwise nominal type system of Go.
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The definition of an interface type lists required methods by name and type. Any object of type T for which functions exist matching all the required methods of interface type I is an object of type I as well. In formal language, Go’s interface system provides structural rather than nominal typing. Interfaces can embed other interfaces with the effect of creating a combined interface that is satisfied by exactly the types that implement the embedded interface and any methods that the newly defined interface adds. Besides calling methods via interfaces, Go allows converting interface values to other types with a run-time type check. The language constructs to do so are the type assertion, which checks against a single potential type, and the type switch, which checks against multiple types. Interface values are implemented using pointer to data and a second pointer to run-time type information.
Like some other types implemented using pointers in Go, interface values are nil if uninitialized. References to other packages’ definitions must always be prefixed with the other package’s name, and only the capitalized names from other packages are accessible: io. Proposals exist to introduce a proper package management solution for Go similar to Rust’s cargo system or Node’s npm system. The Go language has built-in facilities, as well as library support, for writing concurrent programs. The primary concurrency construct is the goroutine, a type of light-weight process. The language specification does not specify how goroutines should be implemented, but current implementations multiplex a Go process’s goroutines onto a smaller set of operating system threads, similar to the scheduling performed in Erlang. Go has a memory model describing how goroutines must use channels or other operations to safely share data.
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The actor style can be simulated in Go by maintaining a one-to-one correspondence between goroutines and channels, but the language allows multiple goroutines to share a channel or a single goroutine to send and receive on multiple channels. Tony Hoare’s communicating sequential processes model. The expert’s programs were usually faster, but also longer. There are no restrictions on how goroutines access shared data, making race conditions possible. Specifically, unless a program explicitly synchronizes via channels or other means, writes from one goroutine might be partly, entirely, or not at all visible to another, often with no guarantees about ordering of writes. Rob Pike calls this a weakness of the language that may at some point be changed. The Google team that designed the language built at least one compiler for an experimental Go dialect with generics, but did not release it.
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Go’s use in systems programming compared to languages with manual memory management. The language designers argue that these trade-offs are important to Go’s success, and explain some particular decisions at length, though they do express openness to adding some form of generic programming in the future, and to pragmatic improvements in areas like standardizing ways to apply code generation. GC has been improved to sub-millisecond pause times in later versions. However, the developers acknowledge that this GC algorithm is not hard real-time. This section possibly contains original research.
Indentation, spacing, and other surface-level details of code are automatically standardized by the gofmt tool. Go enforces rules that are recommendations in other languages, for example banning cyclic dependencies, unused variables or imports, and implicit type conversions. On day one the Go team published a collection of Go idioms, and later also collected code review comments, talks, and official blog posts to teach Go style and coding philosophy. Go includes the same sort of debugging, testing, and code-vetting tools as many language distributions. Plugins exist for adding language support to several widely used text editors. The following simple program demonstrates Go’s concurrency features to implement an asynchronous program. Type a word, then hit Enter.
This section relies too much on references to primary sources. The “Lightning Network”, a bitcoin network that allows for fast Bitcoin transactions and scalability. Decred, a cryptocurrency with on-chain governance integrated into its blockchain. CockroachDB, an open source, survivable, strongly consistent, scale-out SQL database. InfluxDB, an open source database specifically to handle time series data with high availability and high performance requirements. Snappy, a package manager for Ubuntu Touch developed by Canonical. Cacoo, for their rendering of the user dashboard page and microservice using Go and gRPC.
Chango, a programmatic advertising company uses Go in its real-time bidding systems. CoreOS, a Linux-based operating system that uses Docker containers and rkt containers. Nutanix, for a variety of micro-services in its Enterprise Cloud OS. Uber, for handling high volumes of geofence-based queries.
The interface system, and the deliberate omission of inheritance, were praised by Michele Simionato, who likened these language characteristics to those of Standard ML, calling it “a shame that no popular language has followed particular route in the design space”. Go is extremely easy to dive into. There are a minimal number of fundamental language concepts and the syntax is clean and designed to be clear and unambiguous. Go is still experimental and still a little rough around the edges. Ars Technica interviewed Rob Pike, one of the authors of Go, and asked why a new language was needed.
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It wasn’t enough to just add features to existing programming languages, because sometimes you can get more in the long run by taking things away. They wanted to start from scratch and rethink everything. C-compatible language make no sense anymore — they’re just a waste of time and effort. Go offers interesting language features, which also allow for a concise and standardized notation. The compilers for this language are still immature, which reflects in both performance and binary sizes.
The evaluation got a rebuttal from the Go development team. Google’s language to prevent confusion with his language, which he had spent 10 years developing. There are many computing products and services named Go. In the 11 months since our release, there has been minimal confusion of the two languages.
Questions “How do I get dynamic dispatch of methods? Why is there no type inheritance? This article incorporates material from the official Go tutorial, which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Go: code that grows with grace”.
Release History – The Go Programming Language”. Why doesn’t Go have “implements” declarations? Go has structural typing, not duck typing. Full interface satisfaction is checked and required. Google Go boldly goes where no code has gone before”. And it’s being used for real work at Google”.
Go FAQ: Is Google using Go internally? Google’s In-House Programming Language Now Runs on Phones”. The compiler and runtime are now implemented in Go and assembler, without C. Evaluation and Usability of Programming Languages and Tools. Programming in Go: Creating Applications for the 21st Century. The Way to Go: A Thorough Introduction to the Go Programming Language. Duck Typing and the Go Programming Language”.
A Tutorial for the Go Programming Language”. Otherwise, the name and hence the thing being named is visible only inside the package in which it is declared. For your own packages, you must choose a base path that is unlikely to collide with future additions to the standard library or other external libraries. First International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communications.
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Go at Google: Language Design in the Service of Software Engineering”. There is one important caveat: Go is not purely memory safe in the presence of concurrency. It’s the story of how improvements to the Go runtime between Go 1. Patrick Lee, Open Sourcing Our Go Libraries, 7 July 2014. The Netflix Tech Blog: Application data caching using SSDs”. How to Convince Your Company to Go With Golang”. Rhys Hiltner, Go’s march to low-latency GC, 5 July 2016.
How We Built Uber Engineering’s Highest Query per Second Service Using Go”. Go: new open source programming language from Google”. Google’s Go Wins Programming Language Of The Year Award”. TIOBE Programming Community Index for June 2015″. Calling Go from Python via JSON-RPC”.
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