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All rights under copyright are reserved. Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. First English Civil War and marked the end of Royalist resistance in the West Country. It took place in Torrington, Devon. After Lord Wentworth’s defeat at Bovey Tracey, Sir Ralph Hopton was appointed Royalist commander in the west, with Wentworth commanding the horse and Sir Richard Grenville the foot. Grenville refused to recognise Hopton’s command and was arrested for insubordination and imprisoned on St Michael’s Mount.
Hopton’s army, numbering only 2,000 foot and 3,000 horse, advanced into Devon and occupied Torrington, where defensive works were thrown up. The Parliamentarians approached from the east on the evening of 16 February 1646. In heavy rain and with night falling, they ran into Royalist dragoons and fighting broke out to the east of Torrington. The Roundhead commander, Sir Thomas Fairfax, decided to wait until morning to reconnoitre the Royalists’ defences.
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The fighting at the barricades lasted two hours at push of pike. At last the Cornish infantry gave way and retreated into the town, where bitter fighting continued. A stray spark ignited the Royalist magazine in Torrington church, where eighty barrels of gunpowder were stored. The explosion effectively ended the battle, the remaining Royalist troops escaping. The anniversary of the battle is remembered in February each year, with a torch-lit procession and re-enactment. The battle features strongly in the conclusion of Rosemary Sutcliff’s historical fiction Simon.
Cropredy, by Cropredy Bridge – geograph. In the early part of 1644, the Royalists suffered several setbacks. King Charles held a council of war in Oxford, his wartime capital, between 25 April and 5 May. After Rupert departed, the King’s council changed this policy. Charles was in imminent danger of being surrounded and besieged in Oxford.
As the city was short of provisions, he would soon be forced to surrender. On 3 June, Charles made a feint towards Abingdon to induce Waller to draw back, and then marched westward at night towards Worcester with a force mainly composed of cavalry. This allowed the King to make another feint, which convinced Waller he was about to march northward, and then move back south by carrying his foot soldiers down the Avon in commandeered boats, so as to return to Oxford and collect reinforcements. Waller, having failed to intercept the King, went to Gloucester for provisions. Cropredy Bridge, looking east towards Williamscot.
On the fence beyond the left-hand parapet may be seen a plaque commemorating the battle. On Saturday, 29 June, Charles’s army began marching north along the east side of the River Cherwell. Waller’s forces proceeded to shadow the King’s movements on the other side of the river, the two armies little more than a mile apart and in sight of each other, but neither prepared to cross under the fire of enemy guns. As they approached Cropredy, Charles ordered a small detachment of dragoons to seize the bridge over the Cherwell there. At this point, he received a warning that 300 additional horsemen were approaching from the north to join Waller’s army, and he ordered his army to hasten its march to cut off this detachment. The Royalist army became strung out. The Royalist dragoons holding Cropredy Bridge were soon overpowered.
As Middleton’s force streamed towards Hay’s Bridge, they became strung out and vulnerable. At Hay’s Bridge, Middleton’s cavalry was checked by Royalist musketeers who had overturned a carriage to block the bridge, while the Earl of Cleveland charged the Parliamentarian foot and artillery behind them. Meanwhile, Northampton’s brigade charged downhill against Waller’s men, and forced them back across the Slat Mill Ford. The King was alerted that his rearguard was engaged, and ordered his army to turn about.
He also sent his own lifeguard of horse under Lord Bernard Stewart back across Hay’s Bridge to aid Cleveland. With their help, Cleveland made a second charge which forced Middleton back across Cropredy Bridge, abandoning eleven guns. The bridge itself was held by two Parliamentarian regiments of foot, Colonel Ralph Weldon’s Kentish Regiment and the Tower Hamlets regiment. The Royalists tried to recapture the bridge but were repulsed. Waller’s remaining artillery continued to fire from their vantage point on Bourton Hill, forcing the Cavaliers to fall back from the river. By evening, the two armies still faced each other across the River Cherwell. Charles took opportunity in the lull to dispatch his secretary of war, Sir Edward Walker, to parley with Waller with a message of grace and pardon, but the Parliamentarian replied that he had no power to treat.
At length, after receiving further intelligence of additional Parliamentarians nearby, and as the king’s train was low in food and supplies, the Royalists slipped away under the cover of night, taking the guns captured from Waller with them. While the Royalists had suffered few casualties, Waller had lost 700 men, many having deserted immediately after the battle. Waller’s army shortly became demoralised, and immobilised by desertions and mutinies by men unwilling to serve far from their homes, chiefly those drawn from London. Charles could afford to ignore Waller and march into the West Country after Essex, forcing Essex’s army to surrender at Lostwithiel. Robert Giglio The Battle of Cropredy Bridge Being a short account of the action from the English Civil War Society of America collections.
Wildlife Fund in the form of Ripple’s XRP coin, the third most-valuable cryptocurrency after Bitcoin and Ethereum. Ripple is basically a platform to allow people to transfer money from bank account to bank account, person to person, really securely, really simply, really quickly. Kutcher and Oseary have invested in Ripple through their tech investment fund Sound Ventures, which has also funded cloud-based business software company Zenefits, and Ashton also backed Airbnb and Uber from the start. Ripple is a settlement network with the aim of eliminating older systems such as Western Union and SWIFT and allows anyone to transfer money in any currency to any currency in a matter of seconds.
Ripple also offers an alternative in XRP, which can be used as a common currency for money transfers between different currencies. Transaction fees are lower to convert from XRP to another currency and vice versa and transfers take a maximum of four seconds to execute and verify. Although it was not released until 2012, Ripple is actually older than the well-known cryptocurrency Bitcoin with the original company being created in 2004. Since then, Ripple’s virtual currency XRP has been adopted by many banks and financial institutions around the world. While they are similar, the Ripple coin and the Ripple Network have advantages and disadvantages over Bitcoin: as less people are exchanging XRP, transaction costs are lower, but if more starting using it, the fees are expected to increase. All the 100 billion XRP that can be used already exist and a few are released into the market every month in order to avoid flooding.
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In 2017, Ripple pledged to lock 55 billion XRP in 55 smart contracts which would subsequently put billions of dollars in escrow. This was done so that the currency will steadily increase its price and as more and more banks accept it, the process is legitimized and not as a competitor, in the way Bitcoin is perceived. Because of this, Ripple’s success depends on banks buying into it and pushing it forward. However, you can buy Ripple in the same way that you would any other cryptocurrency. XRP and wait – there is no mining allowed on Ripple. Love Island: Will Danny Dyer visit daughter Dani and when are the parents entering the villa? Mila Kunis and Macaulay Culkin: When did they date and why did they split?
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28, 2011 file photo, a dog casts a shadow in St. Could a USB security key stop you getting hacked? Is this the breakthrough that will soon end diabetes? Forget jet lag, it’s time to talk about GUT LAG! Caroline Flack and Andrew Brady split: TV host, 38, finally kicks ex-fiancé, 27, out of home following 20 minute showdown. Tracy Morgan is upbeat as he films comedy The Last O.
Made In Chelsea star Jess Woodley shows off her lithe physique in mismatched bikini as she hits the beach in St. Stranger Things star Finn Wolfhard is a rock star too! Sophie Turner and Joe Jonas’ wheel love! Sacha Baron Cohen’s Showtime series Who Is America? By September 1944, the Allied offensive in Western Europe had swept from the Normandy beaches all the way to the West Wall, or Siegfried Line, the formidable defensive position along the German border consisting of concrete bunkers fronted by antitank obstacles. Anxious to move quickly through the West Wall, Major General J.
The forest, largely planted and nurtured by the Third Reich, presented an almost solid growth of trees that reduced visibility to a few yards. It contained few roads, steep hills and a handful of clearings for sev-eral villages. On September 14, 1944, the 9th Infantry Division became the first to test the defenses. A Regular Army outfit commanded by Maj. Craig, the 9th had fought in North Africa and then across France. Like many Allied divisions, its ranks had been severely depleted during prolonged combat. The division’s 60th Infantry Regiment was at less than 40 percent strength.
The 9th’s other two regiments, the 39th and 47th, were also understrength. An M-10 from the 893rd Tank Destroyer Battalion moves down a logging trail on its way to Schmidt, Germany, during the fighting in the Hürtgen Forest. Vehicles found it extremely difficult to negotiate the heavily wooded terrain south of Aachen, and the bloody fight for the forest quickly became an infantryman’s battle. In spite of its weakness, the 47th jumped off from near Aachen on the 14th and plunged ahead as much as six miles against little opposition. For two days we saw nothing but trees. We saw no Germans, no buildings.
On the third day, Jordan and his companions, tacking northeast, were perched on a hillside trail. Below them, in plain sight, people in the hamlet of Schevenhütte pursued their business seemingly without regard for the war. The astonished lieutenant then saw a German officer strolling along near his position studying a map. None of us had ever heard of a Kraut officer going anywhere alone, so we expected the shit to fly at any minute.
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The platoon continued over a road and climbed another ridge. Sergeant Myers was the last to cross the road, and as he did, he heard a motorcycle coming from the east,’ Jordan said. Obviously a courier chasing after the colonel. Myers knelt next to a tree and fired.
He blew the rider into the ditch. I called a halt and radioed for instructions. We did a left face and raced down the hill to the village. Our speed was the product of the steep hill rather than combat zeal. As we ran through the backyards, I looked for the handiest back door. The one I opened led into a small commercial kitchen and then directly into the taproom of a small hotel.
The only inhabitant was a dignified old man with a large mustache who was wearing a frock-tailed coat and a shirt with a winged collar. As I emerged from the bar I could see the machine gun section standing by the church on the Gressenich road . The section had been going down the road to set up the MG when a Volkswagen jeep with four Kraut soldiers came barreling by. The Germans waved, and our men reciprocated and both realized at the same time that they were fraternizing with the enemy. They had managed a few rifle shots, but by that time the car had turned left at the church and headed for Düren. Wehrmacht soldiers, not realizing the Americans were in control, wandered into Schevenhütte for the next three days. The GIs utilized a massive communications bunker in the village for their headquarters.
Jordan’s battalion commander sent a German-speaking sergeant up to intercept messages detailing assembly points. He promptly relayed the data to the artillery. Gilgore, a soldier in the 121st Infantry Regiment, shows the strain of his time in the Hürtgen during a brief lull. Elsewhere, other 9th Infantry Division soldiers entered a much more deadly environment. The 39th Regiment, about eight miles south of Schevenhütte, pressed an attack at Lammersdorf on the edge of the forest. From a hill overlooking that village, the Germans pounded the Americans with everything from small arms to heavy artillery. The enemy attacked five or six times,’ a German officer reported.
The advance of the 60th Regiment toward the Hüfen-Alzen ridge south of Simmerath, proved equally frustrating. Command and control broke down as the density of the trees in the forest limited visibility to no more than a few feet. Tree bursts showered deadly shrapnel upon prone soldiers and those crouched in foxholes. Enemy fire drenched open areas, and the available maps provided little information on the few trails that could be found.
Radios functioned poorly in the thick woods. Buttressed by their massive defensive positions, the Germans counterattacked, hitting the 39th and 60th regiments hard. Nevertheless, aided by tanks from the 3rd Armored Division, the Americans slowly forged ahead. The Germans, however, rushed in reinforcements to confront the deepest penetration by the GIs, the town of Germeter, three miles from the strategic hub of Schmidt.
From October 6-16 the 9th Division gained about 3,000 yards at a cost of some 4,500 men killed, wounded or missing. Despite the losses suffered by the 9th Division, high hopes pervaded the First Army chieftains. Gerow came to see the general for final discussion of V Corps’ attack tomorrow morning and with him the general left for a visit to the 28th Division, which was to spearhead the attack. He found them in fine fettle, raring to go, optimistic over their chances of giving the Boche a fine drubbing.
On November 2, the 28th Division entered a disfigured forest area that was littered with debris from the battered 9th Division and the German defenders. On second observation forest looked ominous. It was dark, and as we went to our positions, we could see some of the problems that the 9th Division faced. The pine forest, which comprised 99 percent of the forest, was littered with branches, and it was difficult to go in a straight line because of all the debris.
We noticed the trees were scarred from shrapnel, and many trees were down from direct artillery hits. In general, the forest floor was a mess. Guns from the VII and V corps announced the start of the renewed U. Artillery elevated its barrels as the foot soldiers moved out to avoid friendly fire casualties. The Germans took advantage of this lull to begin a ruthless barrage.
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The 707th Tank Battalion, spearheading the advance of the 112th Infantry, led a column over one of the few stretches of open ground. The tanks rumbled ahead, breaking into Vossenack on the path toward Schmidt. The armor poured shells point-blank into the buildings, rousting out the enemy inside. Once the hamlet was secured, Gerow and Cota directed the 112th to station its 2nd Battalion on a ridge east of Vossenack to prevent any interference with the attack on Schmidt.
The regiment’s 1st Battalion, driving toward Schmidt from the south on November 3, met a hail of bullets, mortars and artillery that inflicted heavy casualties and halted progress. But the 3rd Battalion, slanting down from the north, forded the icy Kall River and forged forward against minimal resistance. The battalion occupied Schmidt, set out a perimeter defense and awaited the arrival of tanks to ward off the inevitable counterattack. While American engineers labored to improve the trail for the 707th to reinforce the garrison in Schmidt, the Germans struck hard early the next morning. Gray-clad infantrymen, accompanied by tanks, rolled toward the town while artillery blasted GI positions. Panzerkampfwagen Mark IV and Mark V Panthers from the 16th Panzer Regiment maneuvered around antitank mines strewn over the ground in front of Schmidt.
The panzers and supporting infantry next clanked toward the the American’s most advanced positions at Kommerscheidt, east of the Kall River, a mile or so from Schmidt. Because of an impasse west of the Kall, Ray Fleig’s tank was the only one to make it to Kommerscheidt. Two more from his platoon were about to join him. Five disabled Shermans littered the Kall Trail behind. The trio of Shermans led by Fleig advanced toward the enemy. As they crested a slight rise, the Shermans opened fire. Fleig believed his gunner accounted for two of the attackers while another Sherman knocked out a third.
On the outskirts of Kommerscheidt, Fleig saw a tank screened by an orchard. He called instructions on the range and location to the gunner. A shot rang out and he saw a bright splash of light on the turret of the Mark IV. The thick skin of the Panther protected it, and the Germans who abandoned the tank were not hurt, only frightened. Fleig’s crew scrambled to retrieve the AP shells stowed on their tank’s exterior. The Germans seized the time to re-enter their own tank and begin firing at Fleig.
Fleig, however, ultimately won the duel. His first AP round sliced the enemy gun barrel. A GI helps his squad’s BAR man up a steep wooded hill in the Hürtgen. The terrain was ideally suited to the German defenders, who used the landscape to conceal hundreds of deadly MG34 and MG42 machine guns. Meanwhile, the 110th Infantry, operating in the woods to the south, reeled from a devastating bombardment. We spent the night in previously dug foxholes after being instructed to prepare to move out at dawn with only light combat packs. It was still fairly dark when we moved into an orchard and spread out.
Despite orders not to, we lit cigarettes and smoked them with cupped hands to shield the glow. A GI crawling ahead of me had both his legs blown off by a shell that landed on his limbs. Another shell hit so close to me that I could feel the heat on one side of me as it exploded, and my ear buzzed. I kept crawling toward where I thought the shells were coming from and eventually left the orchard with the survivors, mostly combat vets.
A sergeant told me to round up the guys who had come with me as replacements. Through hours of tough fighting, the Americans had managed to hold off the German attacks. Around 1600 the Wehr-macht retired to regroup. Astonishingly, only an hour earlier, division headquarters blithely ordered the GIs, frantically digging in to preserve themselves and stop the counterattack, to retake Schmidt.
That occurred even though the assistant division commander, General Davis, had come to the command post for the battle at Kommerscheidt to confer with the regimental leader. At First Army, the grim news coming out of the Hürtgen pricked the bubble of anticipated success. G-3 following the corps attack closely. Things did not go very well. The 3rd Battalion of 112th was counterattacked and at 10 o’clock withdrew almost a mile to the vicinity of Kommerscheidt.
Perhaps under pressure from their superiors, Cota and Davis directed another venture against Schmidt. To carry out this attack, the 28th’s commander created Task Force Ripple, an assault team led by the 707th’s commander, Lt. The crew of a 155mm self-propelled gun from the 981st Field Artillery Battalion shells German positions outside Kleinhau on the edge of the Hürtgen Forest. Task Force Ripple was doomed from the start.
The plan called for the 110th Infantry’s 3rd Battalion to shift from its sector on the right flank of the 112th to meet up with the armor at Kommerscheidt and pass through the depleted ranks of that organization and capture Schmidt. The Germans, however, vigorously protected their interests on the trail across the Kall Valley. The inability to advance in the Hürtgen only doubled the resolve of the strategists who developed a plan for a massive all-out offensive toward the Roer, including a significant effort in the forest. To maintain the striking force, Hodges ordered the 12th Infantry Regiment from the 4th Division to be attached to the 28th Division and relieve the shattered 112th.