Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. All nations: Romans, Egyptians, Spartans, Aztecs, Ancient china government, Mongols, Slavs, Chinese, Saxons, Hittites, Persians, Celts, Indians, Japanese and more. Ancient China had a government ruled by dynasties, sometimes united under one dynasty but often competing dynasties in controlling different regions.
Ancient china’s resources, large areas and large populations demanded a strong central government. When one of these regional dynasties became dominant their king would become the emperor. Warlord kings ruled different states in the begging, always attempting to dominate the rival states and dynasties around them. The governments were monarchies, lead by the patriarch of a ruling dynasty, and warfare was endemic. This mandate was given to them by their pagan celestial gods. China was eventually united under one of the regional kings, the first emperor Qin Shi Huang, in 221 BC. During the Qin Dynasty he founded only lasted for 12 years but the emperor wielded absolute power over all of China.
The emperor was despotic, ordering the burning of books to remove all evidence of any earlier dynasties and burying many scholars alive by ceiling them in a room. The Han Dynasty that followed the Qin ruled over a golden age in Chinese history. They had used the nomads mounted strategies against them, pushing into central Asia and making contact with the Persians. This connected the Roman, Persian and Chinese trade routes, creating the great Silk Road. China’s traders and government prospered from the government held monopoly on silk. The following dynasties created a feudal system but continued to be autocratic monarchies. Civil wars also fractured China into different kingdoms periodically throughout the 2200 years of dynastic rule.
Eventually, the nomadic tribes got the upper hand in the endless struggle between them and China and they created Dynasties of their own. Wu Hu, Mongols and Manchu, began to take up Chinese customs like wearing silk robes instead of their horseman’s pants. Thousands of years of dynastic government had ended, China would now be known as the Democratic Republic of China, but heavy handed rule persists throughout the modern Chinese state as in the ancient eras. Jump to navigation Jump to search “Chinese coins” redirects here. Ancient Chinese coinage includes some of the earliest known coins.
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Ancient Chinese coins are markedly different from their European counterparts. Chinese coins were manufactured by being cast in molds, whereas European coins were typically cut and hammered or, in later times, milled. Official coin production was not always centralised, but could be spread over many mint locations throughout the country. Aside from officially produced coins, private coining was common during many stages of history. Various steps were taken over time to try to combat the private coining and limit its effects and making it illegal. At other times private coining was tolerated.
The coins varied in value throughout the history. Western Han, an average of 220 million coins a year were produced. Occasionally, large hoards of coins have been uncovered. The earliest coinage of China was described by Sima Qian, the great historian of c.
This has been so from remote antiquity. Although there is no doubt that the well-known spade and knife money were used as coins, it has not been demonstrated that other items often offered by dealers as coins such as fish, halberds, and metal chimes were also used as coins. In the Zhou period, they are frequently referred to as gifts or rewards from kings and nobles to their subjects. They have been found in areas to the south of the Yellow River corresponding to the State of Chu in the Warring States period. One hoard was of some 16,000 pieces. Their weight is very variable, and their alloy often contains a high proportion of lead.
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Gold coins marked with “Ying yuan”. Ying” being the name of the Chu capital. 5 mm thick, of various sizes, with inscriptions consisting of square or round stamps in which there are one or two characters. They have been unearthed in various locations south of the Yellow River indicating that they were products of the State of Chu. Pieces are of a very variable size and thickness, and the stamps appear to be a device to validate the whole block, rather than a guide to enable it to be broken up into unit pieces. Some specimens have been reported in copper, lead, or clay. It is probable that these were funeral money, not circulating coinage, as they are found in tombs, but the gold coins are not.
It has been suggested that pieces of jade were a form of money in the Shang Dynasty. They were used again in the Song dynasty. They are clearly too flimsy for use, but retain the hollow socket by which a genuine tool could be attached to a handle. This socket is rectangular in cross-section, and still retains the clay from the casting process.
In the socket the hole by which the tool was fixed to its handle is also reproduced. Prototype spade money: This type of spade money is similar in shape and size to the original agricultural implements. While some are perhaps robust enough to be used in the fields, others are much lighter and bear an inscription, probably the name of the city which issued it. Some of these objects have been found in Shang and Western Zhou tombs, so they date from c. Inscribed specimens appear to date from c.
Square shoulder spades: Square shoulder spade coins have square shoulders, a straight or slightly curving foot, and three parallel lines on the obverse and reverse. Archaeological evidence dates them to the early Spring and Autumn period, around 650 BC onwards. Sloping shoulder spades: Sloping shoulder spades usually have a sloping shoulder, with the two outside lines on the obverse and reverse at an angle. The central line is often missing.
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This type is generally smaller than the prototype or square shoulder spades. Their inscriptions are clearer, and usually consist of two characters. They are associated with the Kingdom of Zhou and the Henan area. Their smaller size indicates that they are later in date than the square shoulder spades. Pointed shoulder spades: This type of spade has pointed shoulders and feet, and a long hollow handle. There are three parallel lines on the obverse and reverse, and occasionally inscriptions.
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Henan and in Shanxi, territory of the Duchy of Jin, later to become Zhao. They are held to be somewhat later in date than the square shouldered spades. These have lost the hollow handle of the early spades. They nearly all have distinct legs, suggesting that their pattern was influenced by the pointed shoulder hollow handled spades, but had been further stylized for easy handling. They are generally smaller, and sometimes have denominations specified in their inscriptions as well as place names. Arched foot spades: This type has an arched crutch, often like an inverted U. The shoulders can be rounded or angular.
Denominations of half, one, or two jin are normally specified. Special spades of Liang: Similar in shape to the arched foot spades. Their inscriptions have been the subject of much debate. All are now agreed that these coins were issued by the State of Liang, and the inscriptions indicate a relationship between the jin weight of the coins, and the lie, another unit of weight or money.
They are a clear descendant of the pointed shoulder hollow handled spade. Square foot spades: This type has square feet, a square crutch, and a central line on the obverse. The reverses are normally only three lines, apart from on spades produced by some mints in the state of Zhao that also produced pointed foot spades. These have numerals on the reverse. The mints that produced square foot spades are more numerous than those that produced the pointed foot spades. Their weights are compatible with the half jin denomination.
Sharp cornered spades: These form a distinct sub-series of the square foot spades. They differ slightly from the normal type as they have small triangular projections on the handle. While nie was the name of a river in Henan, the character cannot be readily construed as part of a place name, as it is found in conjunction with other place names such as Lu Shi and Yu. Thus the characters jin nie mean “metal coin”. The weights of the larger coins seem slightly higher than the 14 grams of the jin standard.
Their find spots correspond with the states of Liang and Han. Dang Jin spades: These constitute another sub-group whose inscriptions suggest equivalence between the units of two trading areas. This is normally taken as being the same as the jin unit found on other flat handled spade coins. However, the 28 gram weight of these coins suggests that their unit was twice the 14 grams of the flat handled spade jin, so perhaps it was a local unit of the area.
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The smaller coin is often found as two joined together at the feet. This is how they were cast, but it is not clear if they were intended to circulate like this. Round foot spades: Round handle, round shoulders, and round feet. A rare type, this type is represented by the coins of five cities in present-day Shanxi, between the Fen and Yellow River. There are two sizes, the equivalent of the one jin and half jin denominations.
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They have various numerals on their reverses. Three hole spades: Holes in the handle and feet. Round handle, round shoulders, and round feet. As the liang unit of weight was divided into 24 zhu, clearly the two sizes represent denominations of a “one” and of a “half”. They also have series numbers on the handle on the reverse.
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Like the round foot spades, it is not definitely established which State issued them. Their find spots are in eastern Shanxi and Hebei. The mint names are cities that were occupied by both Zhongshan and Zhao. Knife Money is much the same shape as the actual knives in use during the Zhou period. They appear to have evolved in parallel with the spade money in the north-east of China.