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Stranger Things Season 3: What We Know So Far Incl. Capital In Ibiza: We’re Off On Holiday And We Want You To Come Too! Marcel Duchamp, a well known example of “remixing” in traditional painting art. Remix culture, sometimes read-write culture, is a society that allows and encourages derivative works by combining or editing existing materials to produce a new creative work or product. Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy by Lawrence Lessig in 2008 describes the remix culture. In the usual Read Only media culture, the culture is consumed more or less passively.
Digital technology does not have the ‘natural’ constraints of the analog that preceded it. RO culture had to be recoded in order to compete with the “free” distribution made possible by the Internet. Write culture has a reciprocal relationship between the producer and the consumer. Taking works, such as songs, and appropriating them in private circles is exemplary of RW culture, which was considered to be the ‘popular’ culture before the advent of reproduction technologies. Digital technologies provide the tools for reviving RW culture and democratizing production, sometimes referred to as Web 2. Blogs explain the three layers of this democratization. Blogs have redefined our relationship to the content industry as they allowed access to non-professional, user-generated content.
For remix culture to survive, it must be shared and created, or “remixed” by contributors. This is where Participatory culture comes into play, because consumers start participating by becoming contributors, especially the many teens growing up with these media cultures. Remix culture has created an environment that is nearly impossible for artists to have or own “original work”. Media and the internet have made art so public that it leaves the work up for other interpretation and, in return, remixing. A major example of this in the 21st century is the idea of memes. An illustration from a 1354 Syrian edition of the Panchatantra, an ancient Indian collection of animal fables. Various “remixed” Free Beer variants in recipe and label artwork, created since the first release in 2005 under a Creative Commons license.
Folklore existed long before any copyright law. All folk tales, folk songs, folk art, folk poetry, etc. Cooking recipes might be among the oldest knowledge of the mankind which was inherited further and shared unrestricted for adaption and improvement. Parodies are a form of satire that adapt another work of art in order to ridicule it.
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Parodies date back at least to ancient Greek times. Remixing in the graphical arts is long known as appropriation. In much the same way that advertisements decorate walls, graffiti allows the public to choose the images to have displayed on their buildings. Wikimedia logo mosaic to commemorate the one millionth file at Wikimedia Commons.
Remixed from the contributed images on the Wikimedia commons. Wikipedia is an example of a written remix, where the public is encouraged to add their knowledge in an encyclopedia. The wiki-based website essentially allows a user to remix the information presented. Scanlations are fan-made translations of comics from a language into another language. Book mashups, combining multiple books, received attention in 2009 with Seth Grahame-Smith’s Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. The Wikimedia Commons is digital data repository open for free content contribution from the public. The content, mostly images and sound files, is licensed under Creative Commons licenses enabling free reuse and remixing by anyone.
Software as digital good is well suited for adaption and remixing. Pre-internet Public domain software of the 1960s and 1970s was software which was shared, edited and improved constantly as type-in programs. In the Free and open source software culture, established in the 1990s as opposition to the “Read-only” proprietary software, sharing, forking and reusing are natural parts of the development model. The arrival of Internet facing software repositories helped the remix software development model enormously in the 2000s. Fangames are video games made by fans based on one or more established video games, often acting as a sequel when no official sequel exists. Video game modding is the creative adaption of a released video game.
In the 2000s the video game industry noticed the potential and supports often mod makers actively with modding kits. Machinimas are fan-made videos “remixed” from and with video games, going far beyond the original scope and intend. Retrocomputing and computer and digital preservation activities as emulation and reverse engineering were described as aspects of the remixing culture. Household 3D printing heavily relies on remixing as this allows users to repurpose existing designs. Several academic studies have highlighted the importance of remixing for the 3D printing community. DJing is the act of live rearranging and remixing of pre-recorded music material to new compositions. From this music, the term remix spread to other domains.
Arrangements involve taking an already existing melody and reconceptualizing them into a new song. The term “remix” is often used within internet continuities as synonymous with this practice, independent from the original definition of the term “remix” as applied to music. Sampling in music making is an example of reuse and remix to produce a new work. Sampling is widely popular within hip-hop culture. Music mashups are blends of existing music tracks.
In film, remixing is often done and happens in many forms. Most new movies are adaptations of comics, graphic novels, books, or other forms of media. The majority of other Hollywood cinema works are typically genre films that follow strict generic plots. Video mashups combine multiple pre-existing video sources with no discernible relation with each other into a unified video. Vidding is the fan labor practice in media fandom of creating music videos from the footage of one or more visual media sources, thereby exploring the source itself in a new way. VJing, similar to DJing, is the real-time manipulation of imagery through technological mediation and for an audience, in synchronization to music.
Fandubs and Fansubs are reworks of fans on released film material. Walt Disney works are important company remixing examples, for instance Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, Frozen. GIFs are another example of remix culture. They are illustrations and small clips from films used for personal expressions in online conversations. GIFs are commonly taken from an online video form such as film, T.
Throughout history remix culture has been truthful not only in exchange of oral stories but also through the bible. Remixing was always a part of the human culture. American arts in the 19th century might be told in terms of the mixing, matching and merging of folk traditions taken from various indigenous and immigrant populations. The balance between creation and consumption shifted with the technological progress on media recording and reproduction. Notable events are the invention of book printing press and the analog Sound recording and reproduction leading to severe cultural and legal changes. These talking machines are going to ruin the artistic development of music in this country.
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When I was a boyin front of every house in the summer evenings, you would find young people together singing the songs of the day or old songs. Today you hear these infernal machines going night and day. We will not have a vocal cord left. Analog creation devices were expensive and also limited in their editing and rearranging capability. Despite that, a creative remixing culture survived to some limited degree. IBM Personal Computer XT in 1988, a digital remixing enabling prosumer device, affordable for the masses. Technology changed fundamentally with the digital revolution.
Digital information could be reproduced and edited infinitely, often without quality loss. The arrival of the Internet in the late 1990s and early 2000s created a highly effective way to re-implement a “remix culture” in all domains of art, technology and society. On the left side the permitted use cases, on the right side the license components. Remixing is permitted in the two green license groups. The 2008 open-source film by Brett Gaylor RiP!
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A Remix Manifesto documents “the changing concept of copyright”. In 2012 Canada’s Copyright Modernization Act explicitly added a new exemption which allows non-commercial remixing. In 2013 the US court ruling Lenz v. Under copyright laws of many countries, anyone with the intent to remix an existing work is liable for lawsuit because the laws protect the intellectual property of the work. However, current copyright laws are proving to be ineffective at preventing sampling of content. Yochai Benkler and Erez Reuveni, promulgate ideas that are closely related to remix culture in 2007. Some scholars argue that the academic and legal institutions must change with the culture towards one that is remix based.
In his 2006 book Cult of the Amateur. 0 critic Andrew Keen criticizes Free and Read-Write Culture. In February 2010 Cato Institute’s Julian Sanchez praised the remix activities for its social value, “for performing social realities” and remarked that copyright should be evaluated regarding the “level of control permitted to be exercised over our social realities”. Ferguson’s description of the creative process for all original ideas — copy, transform, and combine — presented in a 2011 TED talk. According to Kirby Ferguson in 2011 and his popular TED talk series, everything is a remix, and that all original material builds off of and remixes previously existing material. In 2011 UC Davis professor Thomas W. Joo criticized remix culture for romanticizing free culture, Terry Hart had a similar line of criticism in 2012.
In June 2015 a WIPO article named “Remix Culture and Amateur Creativity: A Copyright Dilemma” acknowledged the “age of remixing” and the need for a copyright reform. Remix Culture and Amateur Creativity: A Copyright Dilemma”. Most cultures around the world have evolved through the mixing and merging of different cultural expressions. Larry Lessig says the law is strangling creativity”. Remix Is a Cultural Right, Lessig Says”.
Download Lessig’s Remix, Then Remix It on wired. The Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain: Proceedings of a Symposium. Teen Internet Users Create, Remix or Share Content Online”. Reading in a Participatory Culture and Flows of Reading Launch Today”. Remix Culture: Its Own Art Form or the Death of Creativity? Remixed Masterpieces: When Artists Pay Homage to Other Artists”. Ryder 1925, Translator’s introduction, quoting Hertel: “the original work was composed in Kashmir, about 200 B.
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At this date, however, many of the individual stories were already ancient. Doris Lessing, Problems, Myths and Stories, London: Institute for Cultural Research Monograph Series No. Introduction, Olivelle 2006, quoting Edgerton 1924. Ryder 1925, Translator’s introduction: “The Panchatantra contains the most widely known stories in the world.
If it were further declared that the Panchatantra is the best collection of stories in the world, the assertion could hardly be disproved, and would probably command the assent of those possessing the knowledge for a judgment. Archived from the original on 2010-08-04. For the Love of Mapping Data”. 0: Die bewundernswerte Kunst der Fan-Remakes”. From vital patches to game cancellations, players are often intimately involved. Christian Donlan on Eurogamer “Supreme Commander fans released Forged Alliance Forever and gave the game the online client it could otherwise only dream of.
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This paper looks at the world of retrocomputing, a constellation of largely non-professional practices involving old computing technology. Copy, transform, combine: exploring the remix as a form of innovation”. Knowledge Reuse for Customization: Metamodels in an Open Design Community for 3D Printing”. Toward a theory of remixing in online innovation communities”. The sound of surprise: Looking for Boston’s best”. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
VJ: an artist who creates and mixes video live and in synchronization to music”. 50 Disney Movies Based On The Public Domain on forbes. How Mickey Mouse Evades the Public Domain on priceonomics. Remixer extraordinaire, he is the celebration and ideal of exactly this kind of creativity. How Disney learned to stop worrying and love copyright infringement on salon. Jennifer Lawrence, Remixed: Approaching Celebrity Through DIY Digital Culture”. Digital Gesture: Rediscovering Cinematic Movement Through GIF”.
The Bible is Fiction: A Collection Of Evidence”. Bierley, Paul Edmund, “The Incredible Band of John Philip Sousa”. Lawrence Lessig, 2008, Remix: making art and commerce thrive in the hybrid economy, London: Bloomsbury Academic. A: Brett Gaylor of Open Source Cinema”.
The Load-Down Archived 2007-06-30 at the Wayback Machine. Canada is one of a few countries, if not the only one, to have introduced into its copyright law a new exception for non-commercial user-generated content. US District Court, Stephanie Lenz v. Universal Music Publishing Group, Case No. Archived from the original on 2011-04-17. The optimal level for copyright has been a matter for extensive debate over the last decade. Using a parsimonious theoretical model this paper contributes several new results of relevance to this debate.
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The optimal term of copyright has been a matter for extensive debate over the last decade. Based on a novel approach we derive an explicit formula which characterises the optimal term as a function of a few key and, most importantly, empirically-estimable parameters. The second generation of the Internet has arrived. The Three Key Steps to Creativity: Copy, Transform, and Combine by Eric Ravenscraft on lifehacker. Everything Is A Remix Part 1. Remix Without Romance Connecticut Law Review Vol. Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the Rihanna album.
For the Cobra Starship song, see Good Girls Go Bad. A young woman with black hair which is covering one of her eyes, wearing a white dress is posing in front of a black background. Good Girl Gone Bad is the third studio album by Barbadian singer Rihanna. It was released on May 31, 2007, by Def Jam Recordings and SRP Records. Critics gave generally positive reviews of the album, praising its composition and Rihanna’s new musical direction, though some criticized the album’s lyrics and inconsistency. Rolling Stone placed the former at number 412 on the magazine’s 500 Greatest Songs of All Time list. I basically took the attitude of the bad girl and I really got rebellious and just did everything the way I wanted to do it—I didn’t want to listen to anybody.
Rihanna’s second studio album, A Girl like Me, was released in April 2006. In early 2007, Rihanna began work on her third studio album. In an interview with MTV News, she announced that “the new music is going in a different direction. Not on purpose, but I just want to hear something fresh and mostly uptempo. I think that’s where I want to go on this one. Rihanna explained that she wanted to keep the audience dancing and be soulful at the same time.
She sought to make an album that people would listen to without skipping tracks. An African-American man is wearing a blue T-shirt and white cap. He is talking on a microphone and smiling. Ne-Yo co-wrote and provided vocals on “Hate That I Love You”. An African-American man wearing orange sunglasses and black T-shirt is smiling. Producer Christopher “Tricky” Stewart co-wrote and co-produced the lead single from the album, “Umbrella”.
American producers Tricky Stewart and Dream had written the track “Umbrella” in 2007 with pop singer Britney Spears in mind. Rehab”, “Sell Me Candy”, and “Lemme Get That” were composed and produced by Timbaland for the album. Don’t Stop the Music” is a dance-pop and techno song that samples the line “Mama-say, mama-sa, ma-ma-ko-ssa” which is taken from Michael Jackson’s 1983 single “Wanna Be Startin’ Somethin'”. B track with a groove that is built around tambourine shakes, acoustic guitar swirls and a subtle backbeat. B song performed with drums and thundercloud synths.
Dorian Lynskey of The Guardian compared the singer’s vocals to the voices of Ciara and Cassie. Sell Me Candy” features jumbled and noisy production with chaotic beats. Critics praised the collaboration between Rihanna and Jay-Z on the lead single, “Umbrella”. The second single from the album, “Shut Up and Drive”, was serviced to contemporary hit radio in the US on May 13 and rhythmic radio the following week. The song received positive reviews from music critics, who praised its production and the interpolation of the “Mama-say, mama-sa, ma-ma-ko-ssa” hook. Good Girl Gone Bad was first released by the Universal Music Group on CD in Portugal on May 31, 2007.