Their mission: “To promote philanthropy in support of research, education, and public awareness in audiology and hearing science. Founded by British musician Christopher Hogwood in 1973. They perform a passband ripple definition, a passband ripple meaning | English dictionary instruments that date from the time when the music was composed. AAM’s mission is to enhance the value of museums to their communities through leadership, advocacy, and service.
Valuable resource for sound contractors, integrators, etc. The Audio Branding Academy was founded by Cornelius Ringe, Kai Bronner and Rainer Hirt in Hamburg in February 2009. It is the first independent institution for acoustic brand communication, aiming at promoting an intentional and responsible use of acoustic stimuli within brand communication. The Audio Branding Academy is a unique competence center for intersection points of brands, sound and environment and combines a forum, think tank, expert network and education. It hosts the annual Audio Branding Congress and regularly organizes workshops on various audio branding related topics.
The act or product of shortening. A shortened form of a word or phrase used chiefly in writing to represent the complete form, such as Mass. Massachusetts or USMC for United States Marine Corps. Registered trademark of RPG Diffusor Systems for their proprietary panel combining absorption and diffusion characteristics.
The ability to name the pitch of a note, or to sing a named note, without reference to a previously sounded one. It is sometimes called ‘perfect pitch. The absorption of sound is the process by which sound energy is diminished when passing through a medium or when striking a surface, i. A comparison testing methodology where a first test, A, is compared against a second test, B. A system controller for audio component comparison testing where the listener hears sound-A, sound-B, and sound-X. The listener must make a determination as to whether X is A or B. The subject may go back to A and B as often and for as long as necessary to make a determination.
Dolby’s digital audio data compression algorithm adopted for HDTV transmission and used in DVDs, laserdiscs and CDs for 5. Academy of Ancient Music See: AAM. Academy curve The name of the standard mono optical track that has been around since the beginning of sound for film. An instrument in harmony with the sentiments of an assassin. A register or electric circuit in a calculator or computer, in which the results of arithmetical and logical operations are formed.
Improving lives by connecting fans, artists and the industry. Incredible web guide to online acoustic conversion calculators. The science of deciphering intelligence from secondary sounds emitted by computers and peripherals. An apparatus that transmits sound in only one direction. First use is in medical ultrasound imaging equipment. Peter D’Antonio, founder of RPG Diffusor Systems, for the interaction between the room, the loudspeaker, and the listener. The phenomenon where the sound from a loudspeaker is picked up by the microphone feeding it, and re-amplified out the same loudspeaker only to return to the same microphone to be re-amplified again, forming an acoustic loop.
Each time the signal becomes larger until the system runs away and rings or feeds back on itself producing the all-too-common scream or squeal found in sound systems. Technically it is the complex ratio of acoustic pressure to acoustic volume velocity, at a single frequency. Equivalently, it is a frequency response function in which pressure is the output and volume velocity is the input. First described by Webster in 1919.
An acoustic lens focuses sound in much the same way that an optical lens focuses light. Snell’s law describes the refraction of sound as it passes through an interface between two materials of differing sound speed. Of or relating to sound, the sense of hearing, or the science of sound. Designed to carry sound or to aid in hearing. Designed to absorb or control sound: acoustic tile. Dan Russell illustrating many important acoustic principles.
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Invented by Edgar Villchur in 1954 and co-developed with Henry Kloss . Hit the link for technical details. AO The science of the interaction of sound and light. A bit of a misnomer since it usually involves ultrasonic frequencies.
For the math, see University of Colorado Acoustooptics Lecture. AC power plugs and sockets Electrical Power. The various plugs and sockets used to connect any country’s AC mains and appliances and other electrical equipment. Hit the link to see all the variations and details. H output to approximately equal its input.
The ratio of attenuation and crosstalk in a cable, i. A word formed from the first letters of a name, such as laser for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, or by combining initial letters or parts of a series of words, such as radar for radio detecting and ranging. Walter Weber at Siemens in the early ’40s to ferric-oxide tapes base on previous work in the ’20s used on wire recorders. A component requiring power to operate, e. A device found in DJ mixers used to crossfade between two music sources.
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An active design uses the potentiometer to send a control voltage to some type of voltage-controlled device that controls the audio, while in a passive design the audio appears on the potentiometer itself. Active designs are more robust and offer greater reliability over passive ones. A loudspeaker crossover requiring a power supply to operate. Usually rack-mounted as a separate unit, active crossovers require individual power amplifiers for each output frequency band. Available in configurations known as stereo 2-way, mono 3-way, and so on. A variable equalizer requiring a power supply to operate.
Available in many different configurations and designs. ActiveX A Microsoft developed software technology released in 1996. A variation of delta modulation in which the step size may vary from sample to sample. Panasonic, putting 8-tracks of 16-bit, 44. This standard describes transmission of 8-channels of digital audio data through a single fiber optic cable. The ADC is the first link in the digital chain of signal processing.
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International 5-day conference and festival for electronic music. An organization of professional disc jockeys that promotes ethical behavior, industry standards and continuing education for its members. A very fast data compression algorithm based on the differences occurring between two samples. Film postproduction term used to indicate the act and location where dialogue that is not taped during production or that needs to be redone is recorded and synchronized to the picture. Usually the name of the room where this occurs, containing a studio with a screen, TV monitors, microphones, control area, console and loudspeakers.
Echoes happen in both voice and data conversation, therefore two types of cancellers are encountered: acoustic and line. Aeolian tones Air passing over an object produces a sound called Aeolian sound or tone after the Greek god of the winds, Aeolus. A stringed horn instrument created by artist Luke Jerram that resembles a giant hedgehog. Founded in 1948, the largest professional organization for electronic engineers and all others actively involved in audio engineering. Primarily concerned with education and standardization. AES2 The standard for loudspeaker testing, officially known as AES2 AES standard for acoustics – Methods of measuring and specifying the performance of loudspeakers for professional applications – Drive units.
AES3-MIC Any microphone having a digital output that conforms to AES42 AES standard for acoustics – Digital interface for microphones. AES17 low-pass filter The common name given to the low-pass filter defined by AES17 AES standard method for digital audio engineering — Measurement of digital audio equipment, used to limit the measuring bandwidth. AES48 This the standard on proper shield grounding, specifically AES48 AES standard on interconnections – Grounding and EMC practices – Shields of connectors in audio equipment containing active circuitry. AES50 This open standard defines a Layer 1 protocol using Ethernet wiring, albeit not a true switched audio network.
AES67 The standard for operating pro audio network systems in an interoperable manner, specifically AES67 AES standard for audio applications of networks – High-performance streaming audio-over-IP interoperability. Also referred to as post fade solo, but since PFL already meant pre fade, AFL was adopted to prevent confusion. A circuit or algorithm that varies gain as a function of the input signal amplitude. Commonly found in pro audio applications where you want to automatically adjust the gain of different sound sources in order to maintain a constant loudness level at the output. Defined by Apple Computer in 1988, it provides a standard for storing monaural and multichannel sampled sounds at a variety of sample rates and widths.
Oskar Heil, which operates on a different principle than both dynamic and electrostatic drivers. The PCM coding and companding standard used in Europe and in areas outside of North American influence. Contrast with Mu Law used in North America and Japan. From aleatory meaning dependent on chance, luck, or an uncertain outcome. A structured set of instructions and operations tailored to accomplish a signal processing task. Digital simulation of reverberation based on algorithms.
The problem of unwanted frequencies created when sampling a signal of a frequency higher than half the sampling rate. Describes how room boundaries and loudspeaker power output interact. American acoustic engineer noted for his contributions to early loudspeaker design. A filter that provides only phase shift or phase delay without appreciably changing the magnitude characteristic.
Any of several hard, strong alloys of iron, aluminum, nickel, cobalt and sometimes copper, niobium, or tantalum, used to make strong permanent magnets . See: hearing loop for one example. An electric current that reverses direction at regularly recurring intervals of time. An impervious aluminum or aluminum alloy tube, either smooth or corrugated, which is applied over a cable core to provide mechanical protection. The encoding of a carrier wave by variation of its amplitude in accordance with an input signal. A broadcast system that uses amplitude modulation.
A perceptual sense of space . The acoustic qualities of a listening space . Ambisonics A British-developed surround sound system designed to reproduce a true three-dimensional sound field. Ambisonics delivers what the ill-fated quadraphonics of the ’70s promised but could not. A not-for-profit organization founded in 1985 dedicated to helping companies with continuous improvement and their pursuit of excellence. Americana Music Festival Yearly event held in Nashville, TN, since 2000, featuring over 150 performances at over nine venues, spread out over four days.
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An organization of motor vehicle manufacturers worldwide created to facilitate the development, promotion and standardization of electronic gateways to connect automotive multimedia, telematics and other electronic devices to their motor vehicles. Refers to the technology behind the addressing of pixels in OLED displays. An alliance of industry partners that develop, manufacture, and support products and services that interoperate with the Microsoft platforms. A non-profit organization that promotes music education in school systems. The maximum current-caring capacity of a material. Created in 1927, a professional honorary organization composed of over 6,000 motion picture craftsmen and women.
It is the steady current that when flowing in straight parallel wires of infinite length and negligible cross section, separated by a distance of one meter in free space, produces a force between the wires of 2E-7 newtons per meter of length. French physicist and mathematician who formulated Ampère’s law, a mathematical description of the magnetic field produced by a current-carrying conductor. An electronic device used to increase an electrical signal. Classification was based on the amount of time the output devices operate during one complete cycle of signal swing. Classes were also defined in terms of output bias current .
Class A operation is where both devices conduct continuously for the entire cycle of signal swing, or the bias current flows in the output devices at all times. The key ingredient of class A operation is that both devices are always on. There is no condition where one or the other is turned off. Because of this, class A amplifiers in reality are not complementary designs. Class B operation is the opposite of class A.
Both output devices are never allowed to be on at the same time, or the bias is set so that current flow in a specific output device is zero when not stimulated with an input signal, i. Thus each output device is on for exactly one half of a complete sinusoidal signal cycle. Class AB operation is the intermediate case. The output bias is set so that current flows in a specific output device appreciably more than a half cycle but less than the entire cycle. AB2 Subdivisions of Class AB developed for vacuum tube design. These subsets primarily describe grid current behavior: Class AB1 has no current flowing into the grid of the tube, and Class AB2 has some current flowing into the grid. Class AB1 operates closer to Class A, while Class AB2 operates closer to Class B.
Most bipolar solid-state amplifiers would be classified as Class AB2, while power JFET designs mimic Class AB1. Class BD Invented by Robert B. 3,585,517 and improved on by Neil Edward Walker as disclosed in his 1971 U. Both patents are concerned with improving original class D design efficiencies by using various bridge connections and cancellation techniques. And most recently more improvements are claimed by inventors James C.
Its operation is characterized by turning on one device at a time for less than one half cycle. In essence, each output device is pulsed-on for some percentage of the half cycle, instead of operating continuously for the entire half cycle. This makes for an extremely efficient design capable of enormous output power. Class D operation is switching, hence the term switching power amplifier.
Theoretically since the output devices are either completely on or completely off they do not dissipate any power. Class E operation involves amplifiers designed for rectangular input pulses, not sinusoidal audio waveforms. The output load is a tuned circuit, with the output voltage resembling a damped single pulse. Normally Class E employs a single transistor driven to act as a switch. Class F Also known by such terms as “biharmonic,” “polyharmonic,” “Class DC,” “single-ended Class D,” “High-efficiency Class C,” and “multiresonator. Another example of a tuned power amplifier, whereby the load is a tuned resonant circuit.
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One of the differences here is the circuit is tuned for one or more harmonic frequencies as well as the carrier frequency. Class G operation involves changing the power supply voltage from a lower level to a higher level when larger output swings are required. There have been several ways to do this. The simplest involves a single class AB output stage that is connected to two power supply rails by a diode, or a transistor switch.
Class H operation takes the class G design one step further and actually modulates the higher power supply voltage by the input signal. This allows the power supply to track the audio input and provide just enough voltage for optimum operation of the output devices . The efficiency of class H is comparable to class G designs. Class I operation invented and named by Gerald R. Stanley for amplifiers based on his patent U.
Stanley for amplifiers that combine class B and class D where converters act in parallel to drive the load. Class S First invented in 1932, this technique is used for both amplification and amplitude modulation. Similar to Class D except the rectangular PWM voltage waveform is applied to a low-pass filter that allows only the slowly varying dc or average voltage component to appear across the load. Essentially this is what is termed “Class D” today. Modeling a real world loudspeaker for power amplifier testing purposes has been studied for years, resulting in many circuit possibilities. An article compiled and edited by Tomi Engdahl entitled “Speaker Impedance” is an excellent summary of the results.
The maximum absolute value of a periodically varying quantity. The maximum absolute value of a periodic curve measured along its vertical axis. The angle made with the positive horizontal axis by the vector representation of a complex number. A word or phrase formed by reordering the letters of another word or phrase, such as satin to stain. A signal processing circuit that monitors the ambient noise in a space and adjusts the level of the amplified program material as necessary to maintain a desired signal-to-noise ratio. For example, two series connected switches, A and B, requires both be closed for current to pass, thus it requires switch A AND switch B closed to operate.