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We urge you to turn off your ad blocker for The Telegraph website so that you can continue to access our quality content in the future. As such, they are smarter and more intelligent than ordinary materials. The focus of this review is on twofold, namely phenomena, in particular those newly observed ones, and novel applications with great potential at present and in near future. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts,” meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have. These properties come about because of interactions among the parts.
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Emergence plays a central role in theories of integrative levels and of complex systems. In philosophy, theories that emphasize emergent properties have been called emergentism. Almost all accounts of emergentism include a form of epistemic or ontological irreducibility to the lower levels. In philosophy, emergence is often understood to be a claim about the etiology of a system’s properties. An emergent property of a system, in this context, is one that is not a property of any component of that system, but is still a feature of the system as a whole.
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This idea of emergence has been around since at least the time of Aristotle. The term “emergent” was coined by philosopher G. Further, every resultant is clearly traceable in its components, because these are homogeneous and commensurable. Economist Jeffrey Goldstein provided a current definition of emergence in the journal Emergence.
Goldstein initially defined emergence as: “the arising of novel and coherent structures, patterns and properties during the process of self-organization in complex systems”. They serve merely to describe regularities and consistent relationships in nature. Usage of the notion “emergence” may generally be subdivided into two perspectives, that of “weak emergence” and “strong emergence”. In terms of physical systems, weak emergence is a type of emergence in which the emergent property is amenable to computer simulation. This is opposed to the older notion of strong emergence, in which the emergent property cannot be simulated by a computer.
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Some common points between the two notions are that emergence concerns new properties produced as the system grows, which is to say ones which are not shared with its components or prior states. Weak emergence describes new properties arising in systems as a result of the interactions at an elemental level. However, it is stipulated that the properties can be determined by observing or simulating the system, and not by any process of a priori analysis. Bedau notes that weak emergence is not a universal metaphysical solvent, as weak emergence leads to the conclusion that matter itself contains elements of awareness to it. However, Bedau concludes that adopting this view would provide a precise notion that emergence is involved in consciousness, and second, the notion of weak emergence is metaphysically benign. The whole is other than the sum of its parts.
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However, “the debate about whether or not the whole can be predicted from the properties of the parts misses the point. The ability to reduce everything to simple fundamental laws does not imply the ability to start from those laws and reconstruct the universe. The constructionist hypothesis breaks down when confronted with the twin difficulties of scale and complexity. At each level of complexity entirely new properties appear. Psychology is not applied biology, nor is biology applied chemistry. We can now see that the whole becomes not merely more, but very different from the sum of its parts.
The plausibility of strong emergence is questioned by some as contravening our usual understanding of physics. Although strong emergence is logically possible, it is uncomfortably like magic. How does an irreducible but supervenient downward causal power arise, since by definition it cannot be due to the aggregation of the micro-level potentialities? Such causal powers would be quite unlike anything within our scientific ken.
This not only indicates how they will discomfort reasonable forms of materialism. Strong emergence can be criticized for being causally overdetermined. Now, M, as an emergent, must itself have an emergence base property, say P. Now we face a critical question: if an emergent, M, emerges from basal condition P, why cannot P displace M as a cause of any putative effect of M? Why cannot P do all the work in explaining why any alleged effect of M occurred?
One escape route that a strong emergentist could take would be to deny downward causation. Meanwhile, others have worked towards developing analytical evidence of strong emergence. Although macroscopic concepts are essential for understanding our world, much of fundamental physics has been devoted to the search for a `theory of everything’, a set of equations that perfectly describe the behavior of all fundamental particles. The view that this is the goal of science rests in part on the rationale that such a theory would allow us to derive the behavior of all macroscopic concepts, at least in principle. Emergent structures are patterns that emerge via collective actions of many individual entities. To explain such patterns, one might conclude, per Aristotle, that emergent structures are other than the sum of their parts on the assumption that the emergent order will not arise if the various parts simply interact independently of one another. Defining structure and detecting the emergence of complexity in nature are inherently subjective, though essential, scientific activities.
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The synergies associated with emergence are real and measurable, even if nobody is there to observe them. In religion, emergence grounds expressions of religious naturalism and syntheism in which a sense of the sacred is perceived in the workings of entirely naturalistic processes by which more complex forms arise or evolve from simpler forms. In art, emergence is used to explore the origins of novelty, creativity, and authorship. By opposition, “emergent literature” is rather a concept used in the theory of literature.
If emergence happens over disparate size scales, then the reason is usually a causal relation across different scales. In other words, there is often a form of top-down feedback in systems with emergent properties. One reason emergent behaviour is hard to predict is that the number of interactions between a system components increases exponentially with the number of components, thus allowing for many new and subtle types of behaviour to emerge. Emergence is often a product of particular patterns of interaction.
Unintended consequences and side effects are closely related to emergent properties. Luc Steels writes: “A component has a particular functionality but this is not recognizable as a subfunction of the global functionality. Systems with emergent properties or emergent structures may appear to defy entropic principles and the second law of thermodynamics, because they form and increase order despite the lack of command and central control. This is possible because open systems can extract information and order out of the environment. Emergence helps to explain why the fallacy of division is a fallacy. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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Ripple patterns in a sand dune created by wind or water is an example of an emergent structure in nature. Giant’s Causeway in Northern Ireland is an example of a complex emergent structure. Emergent structures can be found in many natural phenomena, from the physical to the biological domain. For example, the shape of weather phenomena such as hurricanes are emergent structures. Water crystals forming on glass demonstrate an emergent, fractal process occurring under appropriate conditions of temperature and humidity.
However, crystalline structure and hurricanes are said to have a self-organizing phase. It is useful to distinguish three forms of emergent structures. An emergent property need not be more complicated than the underlying non-emergent properties which generate it. For instance, the laws of thermodynamics are remarkably simple, even if the laws which govern the interactions between component particles are complex.
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Classical mechanics: The laws of classical mechanics can be said to emerge as a limiting case from the rules of quantum mechanics applied to large enough masses. This is particularly strange since quantum mechanics is generally thought of as more complicated than classical mechanics. Friction: Forces between elementary particles are conservative. However, friction emerges when considering more complex structures of matter, whose surfaces can convert mechanical energy into heat energy when rubbed against each other.
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Patterned ground: the distinct, and often symmetrical geometric shapes formed by ground material in periglacial regions. Statistical mechanics was initially derived using the concept of a large enough ensemble that fluctuations about the most likely distribution can be all but ignored. Such arrangements can be used as simple physical prototypes for deriving mathematical formulae for the emergent responses of complex systems. Temperature is sometimes used as an example of an emergent macroscopic behaviour. In classical dynamics, a snapshot of the instantaneous momenta of a large number of particles at equilibrium is sufficient to find the average kinetic energy per degree of freedom which is proportional to the temperature.
Convection in a liquid or gas is another example of emergent macroscopic behaviour that makes sense only when considering differentials of temperature. In some theories of particle physics, even such basic structures as mass, space, and time are viewed as emergent phenomena, arising from more fundamental concepts such as the Higgs boson or strings. As a result, these macroscopic systems are described in their own terminology, and have properties that do not depend on many microscopic details. Life is a major source of complexity, and evolution is the major process behind the varying forms of life. In this view, evolution is the process describing the growth of complexity in the natural world and in speaking of the emergence of complex living beings and life-forms, this view refers therefore to processes of sudden changes in evolution. Life is thought to have emerged in the early RNA world when RNA chains began to express the basic conditions necessary for natural selection to operate as conceived by Darwin: heritability, variation of type, and competition for limited resources. And this is equally true of the synergistic effects produced by emergent systems.
Swarming is a well-known behaviour in many animal species from marching locusts to schooling fish to flocking birds. An example to consider in detail is an ant colony. The queen does not give direct orders and does not tell the ants what to do. Instead, each ant reacts to stimuli in the form of chemical scent from larvae, other ants, intruders, food and buildup of waste, and leaves behind a chemical trail, which, in turn, provides a stimulus to other ants.