10 Patterns to Practice Common Lace Knitting Stitches

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Insertion in cross stitch, alike on both sides, the pattern left blank. Tapestry and Linen Embroidery – VII Tapestry is one of the oldest kinds of needlework and one which has always been popular every where. The latter is generally preferred, because it is easier to count the stitches upon it, but both make an equally good foundation for the embroidery, as the following examples will show. Besides canvas, other fabrics bearing a close resemblance to it, are often used, especially Java linen, the close texture of which renders grounding unnecessary. Cloth, velvet or plush can also be overlaid with canvas, the threads of which are pulled away after the pattern is finished. For work of this kind, we however prefer a material with less dressing, such as a twisted tammy, or Colbert linen, because the pulling out of the harsh rough threads of the canvas is very apt to injure the material beneath. Stitches, worked upon two stuffs, must be drawn very tight, or they will look loose and untidy when the auxiliary fabric is taken away.

The stitches, which ought completely to hide the canvas, should all lean one way and the underneath ones always from left to right, as the letters in writing. Before beginning a piece of canvas work and tacking on the auxiliary fabric, count how many stitches it will contain, and mark them out in tens, with a coloured thread, as shown in fig. 252, along two sides at least, in the length and breadth. For most kinds of tapestry we can therefore with perfect confidence, recommend the use of Coton à tricoter D. 6 to 20, Cordonnet 6 fils D.

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3 to 15, and even Coton à repriser D. Cross stitch is the foundation of every other stitch, and the one in most common use. It is also called marking-stitch, being used for marking linen. It is worked in two lines. This is worked over two horizontal threads and one perpendicular. In a frame, you can work the second row, from right to left, otherwise, you must turn the work round, and bring out your needle behind the last-made stitch. For the same stitch on Penelope canvas, you need rather a coarse needle, which will make its way easily between the threads of the canvas.

10 Patterns to Practice Common Lace Knitting Stitches

Contrary to Gobelin stitch, this stitch which is an imitation of reps, is worked in vertical lines, over two vertical threads and one horizontal one. This stitch is simply the first half of a cross or marking stitch, worked over a single thread each way. The illustration shows the working of a row, from right to left, the thread being carried forward, underneath the vertical threads. Tent stitch is used for the most part, in conjunction with cross stitch, for the more delicate lines and the shaded parts of flowers and figures.

10 Patterns to Practice Common Lace Knitting Stitches

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This stitch covers two vertical and two horizontal threads, and advances one thread at a time. Worked over two vertical and four horizontal threads, and very useful for filling in large surfaces as it can be done twice as quickly as the ordinary cross stitch. It may be varied by turning the crosses first one way and then the other. Begin with a simple cross stitch over every alternate intersection of the threads then make a second row of stitches between those of the first, but in this case, over two and six threads, so that they extend beyond the first each way. In the subsequent rows, a square stitch should be opposed to a long one and a long stitch to a square one. Fill in the whole ground first, with large cross stitches, over four threads each way, then upon these, make the so-called rice stitches.

These cross the four points of the large cross stitches, and meet in the space between, where they form another cross. The large cross stitches should be worked in rather coarse cotton, the rice stitches in one of a finer quality. This consists of diagonal and upright cross stitches, alternately. Work from left to right, and carry the thread over four vertical threads and downwards, under two horizontal ones, then diagonally upwards, over four threads and downwards under two, then again over four vertical threads, and so on. Carry the thread from left to right, over two horizontal threads, and downwards under four perpendicular ones, then under two threads, from right to left, as the figure indicates.

Here, the stitches are worked in separate rows, over four threads each way. The working thread passes first under the two middle threads, from right to left, and then under the two upper ones. Carry the thread diagonally over two double threads each way, and back under one double thread, to the row whence the stitch started. Make rows of back-stitches in a different colour between the rows of long ones.

The difference between this and the preceding stitch is, that the working thread afterpassing over three perpendicular and three horizontal threads, is secured by a back-stitch over the last intersection of the canvas threads. These back-stitches lean to the right or left, according to the direction of the long stitches. Stretch diagonal threads across the whole surface you are going to embroider, and secure them with rows of overcasting stitches, set, if you are working on Penelope canvas, between the double threads of the canvas. In the next rows the stitches must be set the opposite way, which produces the effect of diagonal or twilled cloth. To imitate this texture in needlework first make one stitch over one crossing of the canvas threads, and then two stitches over two crossings.

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Florentine stitch is worked in slanting lines, the thread being carried, diagonally first over one and then over two double threads of the canvas. Carry the working thread over two threads in width and six in height, bring the needle back, four threads lower down, in front of the double threads, and insert it behind the preceding stitch, and over the middle threads, and then carry it down to the line of the stitches. Make a plain cross stitch over four threads, each way, and then over that, another cross stitch, standing upright. First stitches on the wrong side. When you have finished one stitch, carry the needle under one thread, in an oblique line, to the next stitch, see fig. The whole pattern is worked in diagonal lines.

This stitch, though it is generally worked on silk canvas, can also be worked on the different cotton and linen materials already referred to more than once in this Encyclopedia. It makes a very good grounding in cases where the material is not intended to be completely hidden. It consists of a long stitch over three threads, and a short stitch over one thread, alternately. This differs from the ordinary cross stitch, in the oblique inclination given to the threads, and the manner in which it is begun. Instead of taking up the two threads that follow the first stitch, you bring your needle back from right to left, under the vertical threads of the first stitch,carry it downwards, and then from right to left, to a distance of four threads beyond the first stitch.

Squares, composed of slanting stitches, made over one, three, five, three threads respectively, and then again over one thread, and separated from each other by rows of Gobelin stitches, constitute what is ordinarily known by the name of Scotch stitch. For this stitch, instead of surrounding squares of stitches, made in the way we have just described, with Gobelin stitch, the squares are made to touch, rising like steps one above the other, and bordered only at the sides by Gobelin stitch. The empty spaces between are filled up with Gobelin stitches covering two threads. Carry your thread upwards over six horizontal threads, then from right to left, under one vertical thread and downwards over six horizontal ones. When you have made four vertical stitches in this way, bring the needle out behind the third double thread, counted lengthways, and between the third and fourth, counted across, and fasten the four long stitches together with a back-stitch, to the middle thread of the canvas. If you have a large plain surface to cover, you should choose a stitch that forms a pattern in itself.

10 Patterns to Practice Common Lace Knitting Stitches

Jacquard stitch and others which we shall describe later on, will be found to produce the effect of brocaded stuff. To work Jacquard stitch, make six stitches underneath one another, over two double threads, and six by the side of one another, from left to right, over two double threads. Here, you make the same number of stitches as in the preceding figure but with this difference, that the two rows of stitches are made either over two, or four threads. The last long stitches should come under the last short ones and the short ones, in the middle of the last long ones.

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The effect can be varied by cutting the loops, which gives the surface the appearance of velvet. The illustration represents the middle loops only, as cut, for the cut and the uncut stitch can both be introduced into the same piece of embroidery. For example, the borders in figs. 290, and 291, are worked in open or cut plush stitch, whilst in the centres, the stitch is left uncut.

10 Patterns to Practice Common Lace Knitting Stitches

Two stitches of a similar kind, called Smyrna and Malta stitch, suitable for making rugs or carpets, are described in the last chapter but one in the book. Generally speaking, this stitch is only used for the adornment of under-linen or small articles of fancy-work but it can also be employed in copying cross stitch patterns. In old collections we often meet with very interesting pieces of needlework, which were used for hangings or screens, where the figure-subjects, are executed in chain stitch. Chain stitch cannot, like other stitches, be worked to and fro, nor can all the stitches of one row be finished first, as is generally possible in cross stitch work, each row must be begun separately, and always from the same side, and a different needle should be used for each colour, as the material has often to be changed. Keep the loop, formed by the working thread, under the point of the needle. The thread should not be drawn up tightly but left to form a rather loose, round loop.

For the next stitches, insert the needle close to the thread that issues from the last loop. This simple but most effective design, copied from one of the most beautiful of Oriental carpets, can be executed in, either cross stitch, plush stitch, or chain stitch. To make a wider border still, the diagonal lines that divide the figures shaped like an S, have only to be prolonged, and the figures repeated. The colours have been chosen with the view of reproducing as nearly as possible the subdued and faded tones, which time has imparted to the original. 6 to 12, Cordonnet 6 fils D. 3 to 15, Fil à pointer D. 10 to 30, or Coton à repriser D.

Diagonal lines, intersected by balls, serve here as a setting for quaintly shaped flowers and leaves. The outlines are all worked in cross stitch, and the solid parts, in either tent stitch or Gobelin stitch. 6 to 16, Cordonnet 6 fils D. 5 to 15 or Coton à broder D. Our space will not admit of our reproducing more than a quarter of this design. Colours of the softest shades should be selected for it.


A black line divides the pattern into four quarters. The upper quarter on the right, and the lower one, on the left, should be worked in blue, and the upper one on the left, copied from fig. Part of a design suitable for carpets. 10 to 30, Coton à tricoter D. 3 to 10, or Coton à repriser D. The narrow border, in red, blue and green, is to be repeatedafter the broad band, which is represented in fig. 291, has been added to the grounding.

A very good effect is obtained, if in the broad border, fig. 291, you vary the background of the different subjects. Outer border of the design for carpets fig. 3 to 15, or Coton à repriser D. The stitches used in linen embroidery are very similar to those used in canvas work.

The ordinary cross stitch, as represented in fig. 253, is the one most commonly used, but it is not so effective as the two-sided stitches, which in the beautiful old needlework of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, have always excited our wonder and admiration. Most embroidery of this kind, and more especially the Italian, is done on very fine linen. Such fine work however, requires more time and patience than people, in these days, are as a rule disposed to bestow on work intended merely for pleasure and recreation.

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Linen fabrics are either white, unbleached or cream-coloured. Materials suitable for linen embroidery—As most linen embroidery is executed on articles that are subjected to frequent washing, the D. C cottons, which are to be had in every shade and colour, are the best for the purpose. For coarse stuffs, coarse cotton should be used, such as knitting cotton, Coton à tricoter D. Plain cross stitch, commonly called marking stitch, has already been described in fig. Plain cross stitch on auxiliary canvas. Straight lines of cross stitch, alike on both sides, can be worked in two journeys to and fro.

Working from left to right, begin by fastening in your thread, never with a knot, but by two or three little running stitches, which are hidden afterwards by your first cross stitch. First half of the first journey and auxiliary stitch for returning. Having reached the last stitch, draw out your thread in the middle of it, make an auxiliary diagonal stitch downwardsto the right, bring the needle up in the middle of the last stitch, take it thence, upwards to the left, across two threads, and begin the return journey, from right to left, crossing and thus completing the first row of stitches. In the auxiliary stitch with which you begin the backward journey, the thread lies double on both sides. One journey and first half of the second finished, and auxiliary stitch leading to the second return.

10 Patterns to Practice Common Lace Knitting Stitches